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1.

The Health Reach Sri Lanka project (1993–96) is described. It was a school‐based assessment of children's exposure to war‐related events and the presence of psychological distress, undertaken in six communities in parts of Sri Lanka variously affected by armed conflict. Its objectives, methods and results are presented. The research project aimed to raise national awareness of the psychosocial effects of armed conflict on children, using a community‐development approach to local capacity building, based on the ‘health initiative as peace initiative’ model. As a follow‐up to the study, a locally run programme, based on creative play and trauma‐healing, was established, initially for the children involved in the study. This was later extended to other children in the district affected by armed conflict.  相似文献   
2.
The study of lingual gnosis and praxis skills of children aged from 4.5 years old to 9.5 years old has been realized on normal children and on children under speech therapy for speech and language disorder. The comparison of normal children between our research and the one of Tardieu shows that today's children aged between 6.5 and 9.5 years have lower gnostic skills than in 1973. We observe a lingual gnostic deficit for children of all ages receiving speech therapy, the gap tending to fade as they get older. It seems appropriate to integrate a speech-language assessment test to better understand the gnostic deficit of children with a verbal orality and/or eating disorder. Such information would help to define the therapeutic approach of the speech therapy and thus promote the education gnoso-oral praxis early.  相似文献   
3.
Purpose: To determine whether computed tomography (CT) could enhance the chromosome aberration yields in paediatric patients.

Material and methods: Blood samples were taken before and after CT scans from 10 children for whom the medical justifications for CT examinations were accidental injuries and not diseases as investigated in earlier studies. Chromosome analysis was carried out in lymphocytes by fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) staining exclusively in metaphases of the first cell cycle in vitro.

Results: The mean blood dose of the 10 children was about 12.9 mGy which was determined by a newly developed dose estimation. Based on more than 20,000 analyzed cells it was found that after CT examination the frequencies of dicentrics (dic) and excess acentric fragments (ace) in lymphocytes were significantly increased. By subdividing the children into two age groups, those with an age from 0.4 years to 9 years and from 10 – 15 years, it became obvious that the observed increase in chromosome aberrations was mainly contributed by the younger age group. In this group the frequency of dicentrics was significantly increased whereas in the older group the observed increase was not significant.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that CT examinations enhance the dicentrics yields in peripheral lymphocytes of children aged up to 15 years. Since in particular significantly increased dicentric yields could be observed in children with an age from 0.4 – 9 years, it can be assumed that children younger than 10 years may be more radiation sensitive than older subjects.  相似文献   
4.
This study investigated weight status related differences in executive functions and movement execution to determine whether or not childhood obesity is associated with impaired perceptual-motor function. Nineteen obese (OB) children (10 ♂ and 9 ♀, aged 6–12 years) and nineteen gender and age matched healthy-weight (HW) peers performed two computer-based reaction time tasks. For both the simple and four choice reaction time (SRT/CRT) task condition, absolute mean reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) were determined and expressed as a percentage of total response time (RsT). During the SRT task, OB children were intrinsically slower than their HW peers as reflected by a significantly higher absolute RT, MT and RsT. In the CRT task, however, between-group differences were only present for RT and RsT, whereas absolute MT was comparable among OB and HW participants. As a result, the relative temporal structure of RsT significantly differed between BMI groups, with a greater RT percentage among the OB children. During the CRT condition, OB children probably await final decision-making with regard to the execution of their response movement, which then no longer needs to be adjusted. Our results therefore indicate the use of a more conservative strategy within the OB group, suggesting that childhood obesity is associated with impaired perceptual-motor function. Besides the widely accepted mechanical explanation, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying OB children's motor incompetence is needed to set up appropriate interventions to tackle this deficit and indirectly address associated health-related problems.  相似文献   
5.
We explore the influence of a secondary cognitive task on concurrent postural control in dyslexic children. Seventeen children with dyslexia (DYS) were compared with thirteen non-dyslexic children (NDYS). Postural control was recorded in Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR) conditions while children, in separate sessions, have to fixate on a target and name simple objects appearing consecutively on a computer screen. The surface, the length and the mean speed of the center of pressure were analyzed; the percentage of correct responses to the cognitive task was also measured. DYS are significantly more unstable than NDYS. The secondary cognitive task significantly decreases the postural stability in DYS only. For both children postural performances in the TR condition is significantly worse than in the SR condition. The percentage of wrong responses to the cognitive task is significantly higher in DYS. Postural instability observed in DYS supports the hypothesis that there is a deficit of automatic integration of visual information and postural control in these children. This result is in line with the U-shaped non linear model showing that a secondary task performed during a postural task leads to an impaired postural stability probably due to focus attention on the cognitive task.  相似文献   
6.
Line bisection tasks (different space locations and different line lengths) and circle centering tasks (visuo-proprioceptive and proprioceptive explorations, with left or right starting positions) were used to investigate space representation in children with dyslexia and children without dyslexia. In line bisection, children with dyslexia showed a significant rightward bias for central and right-sided locations and a leftward bias for left-sided location. Furthermore, the spatial context processing was asymmetrically more efficient in the left space. In children without dyslexia, no significant bias was observed in central lines but the spatial context processing was symmetrical in both spaces. When the line length varied, no main effect was shown. These results strengthen the ‘inverse pseudoneglect’ hypothesis in dyslexia. In the lateral dimension of the circle centering tasks, children showed a response bias in the direction of the starting hand location for proprioceptive condition. For radial dimension, the children showed a forward bias in visuo-proprioceptive condition and more backward error in proprioceptive condition. Children with dyslexia showed a forward bias in clockwise exploration and more accurate performance in counterclockwise exploration for left starting position which may be in accordance with leftward asymmetrical spatial context processing in line bisection. These results underline the necessity to use the line bisection task with different locations as an appropriate experimental paradigm to study lateral representational bias in dyslexia. The contribution of the present results in the understanding of space representation in children with dyslexia and children without dyslexia is discussed in terms of attentional processes and neuroanatomical substrate.  相似文献   
7.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training with the Wii-balance board on balance and balance-related skills of children with poor motor performance. Twenty-nine children (23 boys, 6 girls; aged 7–12 years) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group. All children scored below the 16th percentile on a standardized test of motor ability and balance skills (Movement Assessment Battery for children (M-ABC-2)). Before and after a six-week Wii-intervention (M = 8 h, 22 min, SD = 53 min), the balance skills of the experimental group and control group were measured with the M-ABC-2 and the Bruininks–Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2). Both groups improved on all tests. The M-ABC-2 and the BOT-2 total balance-scores of the experimental group improved significantly from pre to post intervention, whereas those of the control group showed no significant progress. This resulted in significant interaction-effects, favoring the experimental children. No transfer-effects of the intervention on balance-related skills were demonstrated. Our findings showed that the Wii-balance board is an effective intervention for children with poor balance control. Further development and investigation of the intervention could be directed toward the implementation of the newly acquired balance-skills in daily life.  相似文献   
8.
The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6–12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (p < .05) worse in all assessed locomotor and object control skills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided.  相似文献   
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