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1.
生物医学工程学科在临床中的创新应用   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
介绍了生物医学工程学科的概念,讨论了生物医学工程学科的学科优势及其在临床中的常规应用,并举例探讨了生物医学工程学科医工结合的专业特色及其在临床中的创新应用,提出了未来生物医学工程学科的发展建议。  相似文献
2.
骨科生物力学参数测试理论及方法研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
介绍了骨生物力学参数测试理论近年来的发展,同时对骨生物力学参数测试方法以及相应测试设备的测试原理、优缺点及国内外研究现状进行了详细介绍。最后,展望了其未来的研究方向。  相似文献
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Cesarean delivery, although classified by medical practitioners as major surgery, is simultaneously defined as childbirth by both specialists and laypeople. Women experiencing cesarean delivery, therefore, confront a contradiction which affects postpartum treatment by nursing staff and expectations by family and the postcesarean patient regarding appropriate responses to delivery. Elicitation of the explanatory models of cesarean patients in a private Dallas hospital indicates the ambiguity in the definition of the cesarean reflecting more general trends in American obstetrics. Further, the data demonstrate the limited influence of the natural childbirth movement and the acceptance of technological intervention at birth in this population.  相似文献
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This article is based on a field study conducted by the authors in East Cameroon in 1987-1988 and on written sources available, including U.N. and Cameroon government statistics. It focuses on two major issues, namely, the relationship between biomedical assumptions and programs and traditional cultural tenets and the impact of both on child mortality in Cameroon's East Province. It contrasts the problems of disease and mortality in the area as reflected in official statistics with the actual health situation in the Province in light of resilient beliefs, attitudes, and practices that hinder rather than facilitate the effectiveness of immunization campaigns undertaken by the government to save the child. The study concludes by discussing policy choices and steps that both the government and the affected people might consider to remedy the region's disappointing health conditions.  相似文献
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The purpose of this article is twofold: to describe some of the biases common to anthropological investigations of healing, particularly Biomedical healing; and to suggest that the physician-anthropologist is uniquely positioned to avoid some of these biases and to make valid contributions to the understanding of the practice of healing. Biases described are methodological (the tendency to formal-symbolic analyses rather than practical-instrumental understandings of behavior, transference and the observer effect), ontological (due to the estrangement of the anthropologist from his culture, other disciplines and his subjects, romanticization of the Other and celebration of the exotic over the mundane), and conventional or stylistic (the minimal importance given to emotional or psychological aspects of behavior, the emphasis on visual and linguistic understanding over other forms of investigation, unsophisticated use of medical texts as an indicator of clinical practice, a characteristic mode of reductionism, and the failure to elicit the responses of the subjects to interpretations made by anthropologists). As native-ethnographer, the M.D./Ph.D. physician-anthropologist may avoid some of these biases and offer complementary interpretations of healing.  相似文献
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This paper gives the results of one of the first studies of non-biomedical health care services in the State of Morelos, Mexico. The socio-cultural matrix of the population of Morelos has attracted many practitioners of medical models which have no foundation in the rationale of the biomedical-scientific model. There is a considerable variety of non-biomedical therapists in the area of study which may be categorised in three groups: (a) traditional medicine (b) alternative medicine, and (c) faith healing. There are marked differences regarding the academic background of practitioners, the reasons why they engage in their practice, the types of financial strategies they use to provide care, the creation and utilisation of therapist networks, and, finally, in the type of population for whom they provide care. We strongly recommend further research on non-biomedical health care models in the state and in Mexico, since the importance of these models is growing as a result of the increasing demand for health care by a diversity of population groups.  相似文献
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Continuing medico-technical progress has led toan increasing medicalisation of pregnancy andchildbirth. One of the most common technologiesin this context is ultrasound. Based on someidentified `pro-technology feminist theories',notably the postmodernist feminist discourse,the technology of ultrasound is analysedfocusing mainly on social and political ratherthan clinical issues. As empirical researchsuggests, ultrasound is welcomed by themajority of women. The analysis, however, showsthat attitudes and decisions of women areinfluenced by broader social aspects. Furthermore, it demonstrates how the visualtechnology of ultrasound, in addition to otherreproductive technology in maternity care, islinked to the `personification' of the foetusand has therefore contributed to a new image ofthe foetus. The exploration of these issueschallenges some arguments of feministdiscourse. It draws attention to possibleadverse implications of the technology forwomen's reproductive freedom and indicates theimportance of the topic for politicaldiscussions.  相似文献
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Discourse on male sexuality in mid-to-later life has exploded in recent years (Gullette 1998). Attention to this topic has been spurred by the advent of (highly profitable) sexuopharmaceutical 'solutions' to erectile changes affecting older men. 'Success' stories abound in the media and in medical literature related to the restoration of faulty erections and ailing sex lives through drugs such as Viagra (sildenafil citrate), Uprima (apomorphine) and Cialis (tadalafil). In this paper we explore some of the ways in which notions about ageing and male sexuality are changing in popular cultural and medical texts in response to the advent of Viagra and the increasing authority of biomedicine in this area. We also demonstrate how the recent biomedical endorsement of 'sex for life' (the imperative to maintain an active youthful masculine [hetero]sexuality - defined in terms of male orgasm through penetrative sex) may be challenged by the very accounts of older men who are, or have been, affected by erectile difficulties and have used drugs like Viagra themselves. We present the perspectives of mid-to-late life heterosexual men in New Zealand whose stories question the contemporary biomedical privileging of erections and intercourse 'at any cost and at any age'. We argue that the current push to identify and treat so-called erectile dysfunction (and restore erections and penetrative sex to relationships) neglects some men's own experiences of alternative modes of relating sexually that they identify as 'normal', 'healthy', 'enjoyable' and 'satisfying' for them and their partners; and undermines their understanding of such changes as positive outcomes of ageing, experience and maturity.  相似文献
10.
We argue that contemporary psychiatry adopts a defensive strategy vis-à-vis various external sources of pressure. We will identify two of these sources – the plea for individual autonomy and the idea of Managed Care – and explain how they have promoted a strict biomedical conception of disease. The demand for objectivity, however, does not take into account the complexity of mental illness. It ignores that the psychiatrist’s profession is essentially characterized by fragility: fluctuating between scientific reduction and the irreducible complexity of reality. Therefore, the psychiatrist is not in need of hard and fast rules, but of judgment. At the end, we suggest that philosophy could inject some healthy uncertainty within psychiatry in order to restore its fragile identity. Our examples are drawn from the Dutch situation but we are confident that they apply to other countries as well.  相似文献
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