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ObjectivesThe present study had two objectives: 1) to examine the differences between students with different levels of academic achievement (low, average and high) in Anxiety/Depression and Test Anxiety; and 2) to test the predictive effect of academic achievement on test anxiety.MethodData were collected in two moments. In time 1, the sample was comprised of 305 students. The students were aged between 15 to 18 years, attending secondary school. The assessment protocol consisted of a Socio-demographic Data Sheet, the Youth Self-Report and the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale.ResultsStudents with low academic achievement presented higher test anxiety than students with average and high academic achievement. Low academic achievement on time 1 predicted higher levels of test anxiety on time 2 when186 participants remained in the study.ConclusionResults suggest the importance of early psychological intervention with students with low academic achievement, and the relevance of promoting the development of skills that enable students to manage their test anxiety.  相似文献   
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BackgroundSurgical disciplines lag behind non-surgical disciplines in attracting female trainees. Female representation of Canadian General Surgeons has not been evaluated in recent years in the literature. The objectives of this study were to assess gender trends in applicants to Canadian General Surgery residency programs and practicing general surgeons and subspecialists.MethodsThis retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed gender data for residency applicants ranking General Surgery as their first-choice discipline from publicly-available annual Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) R-1 match reports from 1998 to 2021. Aggregate gender data for practicing female physicians in General Surgery and related subspecialties, including Pediatric Surgery, obtained from annual Canadian Medical Association (CMA) census from 2000 to 2019 was also analysed.ResultsThere was a significant increase in the proportion of female applicants from 34% in 1998 to 67% in 2021 (p < 0.001) and of successfully matched candidates from 39% to 68% (p = 0.002) from 1998 to 2021. Success rates between male and female candidates were significantly different in 1998 (p < 0.001), but not in 2021 (p = 0.29). The proportion of practicing female General Surgeons also significantly increased from 10.1% in 2000 to 27.9% in 2019 (p = 0.0013), with variable trends in subspecialties.ConclusionGender inequality in General Surgery residency matches has normalized since 1998. Despite females representing more than 40% of applicants and successfully matched candidates to General Surgery since 2008, a gender gap still exists amongst practicing General Surgeons and subspecialists. This suggests the need for further cultural and systemic change to mitigate gender disparities.Type of studyOriginal research article, clinical research.Level of evidenceLevel III (Retrospective cross-sectional study).  相似文献   
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This study investigated variations in salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a prolonged stressful situation (a two-week teaching practice). Thirty-three women for whom a two-week teaching practice at a kindergarten was scheduled were asked to collect saliva samples at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime at four time points: two weeks before the practice, the first week of the practice, the second week of the practice, and a few days after the practice. In addition, they completed questionnaires for assessing perceived stress and subjective moods on each day. A linear mixed model indicated that cortisol levels significantly increased during the first and second week of the practice compared with those before and after the practice period, and that DHEA levels significantly decreased after the practice period compared with those at the other time points. Further, cortisol awakening response after the practice period significantly reduced compared with that at the other time points. Scores of perceived stress and negative moods were also higher during the practice period. This study showed that prolonged stress affected cortisol and DHEA secretion during as well as after the stress period.  相似文献   
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Nursing education in the UK has lagged behind most of the developed world since inception of Project 2000 because in England, a diploma has been accepted as the basis for education, unlike other countries (including Scotland and Wales) a degree has been the accepted standard for many years. While Australia's nursing education has been more protected, an anti-intellectualism is creeping in with a technical college now offering a nursing degree, and some universities lowering their admission standards for nursing courses. Changes in the UK being imposed through the influence of the global financial crisis threaten nursing even further and this is not helped by short sighted media reports of problems with nursing care in the National Health Service. This paper examines the continuing devaluing of critical thinking, something that we contend, with the strongest emphasis, should be at the core of every aspect of nursing practice, education and research., and implications for nursing in both the UK and Australia.  相似文献   
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