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1.
米非司酮治疗异位妊娠47例   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
为探讨米非司酮治疗异位妊娠的效果及适应症,将47例宫外孕分三组服药。结果29例有效,18例手术治疗。观察手术治疗者输卵管妊娠结局,腹腔出血量及病灶部位病理变化。分析原因,发现疗效与药物剂量,服药前血β-hCG高低及手术干预过早有关。认为大剂量米非司酮治疗异位妊娠具有简便、安全、无毒副作用等优点,是异位妊娠保守治疗的一种较好方法。适合于生命体征平稳,无剧烈腹痛,血β-hCG〈10ng·ml^-1,盆  相似文献
2.
Thomas C. Wright, Jr, MD; J. Thomas Cox, MD; L. Stewart Massad, MD; Leo B. Twiggs, MD; Edward J. Wilkinson, MD; for the 2001 ASCCP-Sponsored Consensus Conference

JAMA. 2002;287:2120-2129.

Objective  To provide evidence-based consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities and cervical cancer precursors.

Participants  A panel of 121 experts in the diagnosis and management of cervical cancer precursors, including representatives from 29 professional organizations, federal agencies, and national and international health organizations, were invited to participate in a consensus conference sponsored by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP).

Evidence and Consensus Process  Guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities were developed through a multistep process. Starting 6 months before the conference, working groups developed draft management guidelines based on formal literature reviews of English-language articles published in 1988-2001, as well as input from the professional community at large, obtained using interactive Internet-based bulletin boards. On September 6-8, 2001, the ASCCP Consensus Conference was held in Bethesda, Md. Guidelines with supporting evidence were presented and underwent discussion, revision, and voting.

Conclusions  Management of women with atypical squamous cells (ASC) depends on whether the Papanicolaou test is subcategorized as of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or as cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-H). Women with ASC-US should be managed using a program of 2 repeat cytology tests, immediate colposcopy, or DNA testing for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Testing for HPV DNA is the preferred approach when liquid-based cytology is used for screening. In most instances, women with ASC-H, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, HSIL, and atypical glandular cells should be referred for immediate colposcopic evaluation.

  相似文献

3.
Osteopontin as a potential diagnostic biomarker for ovarian cancer   总被引:49,自引:0,他引:49  
CONTEXT: Development of new biomarkers for ovarian cancer is needed for early detection and disease monitoring. Analyses involving complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray data can be used to identify up-regulated genes in cancer cells, whose products may then be further validated as potential biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To describe validation studies of an up-regulated gene known as osteopontin, previously identified using a cDNA microarray system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Experimental and cross-sectional studies were conducted involving ovarian cancer and healthy human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines and cultures, archival paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue collected between June 1992 and June 2001, and fresh tissue and preoperative plasma from 144 patients evaluated for a pelvic mass between June 1992 and June 2001 in gynecologic oncology services at 2 US academic institutions. Plasma samples from 107 women selected from an epidemiologic study of ovarian cancer initiated between May 1992 and March 1997 were used as healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative messenger RNA expression in cancer cells and fresh ovarian tissue, measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction as 2(-DeltaDeltaCT)(a quantitative value representing the amount of osteopontin expression); osteopontin production, localized and scored in ovarian healthy and tumor tissue with immunohistochemical studies; and amount of osteopontin in patient vs control plasma, measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS: The geometric mean for 2(-DeltaDeltaCT)for osteopontin expression in 5 healthy ovarian epithelial cell cultures was 4.1 compared with 270.4 in 14 ovarian cancer cell lines (P =.03). The geometric mean 2(-DeltaDeltaCT)for osteopontin expression in tissue from 2 healthy ovarian epithelial samples was 9.0 compared with 164.0 in 27 microdissected ovarian tumor tissue samples (P =.06). Immunolocalization of osteopontin showed that tissue samples from 61 patients with invasive ovarian cancer and 29 patients with borderline ovarian tumors expressed higher levels of osteopontin than tissue samples from 6 patients with benign tumors and samples of healthy ovarian epithelium from 3 patients (P =.03). Osteopontin levels in plasma were significantly higher (P<.001) in 51 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (486.5 ng/mL) compared with those of 107 healthy controls (147.1 ng/mL), 46 patients with benign ovarian disease (254.4 ng/mL), and 47 patients with other gynecologic cancers (260.9 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence for an association between levels of a biomarker, osteopontin, and ovarian cancer and suggest that future research assessing its clinical usefulness would be worthwhile.  相似文献
4.
北京地区成年女性尿失禁的流行病学研究   总被引:46,自引:0,他引:46  
目的明确北京地区成年女性尿失禁的患病率、各种类型尿失禁的患病特点和相关影响因素。方法对北京市城区和郊区农村采用整群分层随机方法,抽取20岁以上成年女性5300人进行《国际下尿路症状问卷》现场调查。从20岁起,每10岁为一个年龄段,分为8组。结果共获得资料完整问卷5221份,未婚409人,已婚4812人。被调查的对象年龄22~99,平均年龄(46±17)岁。北京地区成年女性尿失禁的患病率为38·5%(2008/5221),压力性尿失禁、急迫性尿失禁和混合性尿失禁的患病率分别为22·9%(1197/5221)、2·8%(147/5221)和12·4%(649/5221)。随着年龄的增长,混合性尿失禁患病率明显增加。北京地区压力性、急迫性、混合性及其他类型尿失禁的构成比分别为59·6%(1197/2008),7·3%(147/2008)、32·3%(649/2008)和0·7%(15/2008)。多因素logistic回归表明:年龄、分娩方式、体重指数、高血压(舒张压高)、吸烟、便秘和慢性盆腔痛是北京地区成年女性压力性尿失禁发生的影响因素。结论北京地区成年女性尿失禁患病率比较高,是影响女性生活质量的主要疾病;尿失禁中以压力性尿失禁为主,其他依次为混合性尿失禁和急迫性。高龄、阴道分娩、体重指数高、高血压(舒张压高为主)、吸烟、便秘、慢性盆腔痛是北京地区成年女性压力性尿失禁的危险因素,剖宫产是其保护因素。  相似文献
5.
子宫切除术与卵巢功能   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
目的了解切除子宫,保留双侧或一侧卵巢的妇女术后卵巢功能是否受影响。方法对521名患者进行问卷式回顾性调查,分析术时年龄、手术方式、手术范围、病种与卵巢功能的关系。同时对某一单位1600余名女职工进行正常人群的月经及绝经症状情况调查。结果正常人群组中有197名妇女出现潮热症状,平均年龄(46.87±4.22)岁;手术组患者中出现潮热症状者293名,手术时年龄(42.84±4.37)岁,术后出现潮热的时间是术后(1.99±2.40)年,平均年龄(44.64±4.31)岁,即子宫切除术后卵巢仅有不到2年的正常功能,而且比正常人群还提前两年出现潮热症状(P<0.01)。手术方式及病种与潮热症状的出现无关,手术范围与潮热症状的出现呈正相关(r=0.197,P<0.001)。结论保留卵巢的子宫切除术能影响卵巢功能,使之提前衰退。  相似文献
6.
子宫颈癌预防的现代策略   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
子宫颈癌是女性最常见的生殖道恶性肿瘤,发病呈年轻化和上升化趋势。筛查是防治之始,中国拟行最佳、一般及基本3种方案。子宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)系癌前病变,可采用细胞学——阴道镜检——组织学明确病变级别,并给予规范化处理。人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染是子宫颈癌发生的基本因素,持续的高危型HPV感染可引发子宫颈病变及子宫颈癌。HPV检测可用于筛查、未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞/鳞状上皮内低度病变(ASC-US/LSIL)分流及治疗后随诊。对HPV感染的现代对策是"治病——治疗CIN,即治毒——HPV"。HPV疫苗的问世是预防子宫颈癌的重要事件,可形成一级预防。但早诊早治仍是最基本的防治策略。  相似文献
7.
妊娠肝内胆汁淤积症1210例围生结局分析   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
目的探讨妊娠肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)的围生结局。方法对近10年在我院产前检查并住院治疗分娩的1210例ICP病例资料进行回顾性分析。结果ICP先兆早产率19.0%(230/1210),88.7%(204/230)发生于32周后,先兆早产住院病例发生死胎占所有ICP死胎的46.7%(7/15);ICP早产率24.0%(290/1210),96.2%(279/290)分布于34周以后,89.7%(260/290)为胎儿异常行剖宫产;羊水胎粪污染率23.2%(281/1210),41.3%(116/281)发生于临产前,羊水胎粪污染对新生儿窒息(新生儿1 m in Apgar评分≤7分)预测率为25%(70/281);新生儿窒息发生率7.1%(86/1210);围生儿病死率22.5‰(27/1210),其中死胎占56%(15/27),死胎平均孕周36.5周±1.2周,80%(12/15)发生于妊娠35周后,所作胎心监护均无异常发现,95%(19/20)的死胎、死产突然发生于先兆早产、偶然宫缩或临产初期;剖宫产率85.9%(1039/1210),胎儿生长受限(FGR)发生率0.9%(11/1210),产后出血率1.4%(17/1210),8.1%(101/1210)ICP患者合并子痫前期。结论ICP胎儿无明显FGR表现,子痫前期及产后出血发生率与一般孕妇人群相似;常规胎儿监护手段难以预测ICP死胎;积极防治先兆早产,重视先兆早产、偶然宫缩、产前羊水胎粪污染或临产初期时的胎儿监护,把握终止妊娠时机(34~37周),是降低ICP围生儿病死率的重要手段。  相似文献
8.
Context  Postmenopausal women have a greater risk than men of developing Alzheimer disease, but studies of the effects of estrogen therapy on Alzheimer disease have been inconsistent. On July 8, 2002, the study drugs, estrogen plus progestin, in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial were discontinued because of certain increased health risks in women receiving combined hormone therapy. Objective  To evaluate the effect of estrogen plus progestin on the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment compared with placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants  The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, began enrolling participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin trial in May 1996. Of the 4894 eligible participants of the WHI study, 4532 (92.6%) postmenopausal women free of probable dementia, aged 65 years or older, and recruited from 39 of 40 WHI clinical centers were enrolled in the WHIMS. Intervention  Participants received either 1 daily tablet of 0.625 mg of conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 2229), or a matching placebo (n = 2303). Main Outcome Measures  Incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) and mild cognitive impairment (secondary outcome) were identified through a structured clinical assessment. Results  The mean (SD) time between the date of randomization into WHI and the last Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) for all WHIMS participants was 4.05 (1.19) years. Overall, 61 women were diagnosed with probable dementia, 40 (66%) in the estrogen plus progestin group compared with 21 (34%) in the placebo group. The hazard ratio (HR) for probable dementia was 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-3.48; 45 vs 22 per 10 000 person-years; P = .01). This increased risk would result in an additional 23 cases of dementia per 10 000 women per year. Alzheimer disease was the most common classification of dementia in both study groups. Treatment effects on mild cognitive impairment did not differ between groups (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.74-1.55; 63 vs 59 cases per 10 000 person-years; P = .72). Conclusions  Estrogen plus progestin therapy increased the risk for probable dementia in postmenopausal women aged 65 years or older. In addition, estrogen plus progestin therapy did not prevent mild cognitive impairment in these women. These findings, coupled with previously reported WHI data, support the conclusion that the risks of estrogen plus progestin outweigh the benefits.   相似文献
9.
剖宫术后再次妊娠阴道试产成功因素的分析   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
刘淳  邹吟  朱钟治  侍庆 《上海医学》2000,23(12):753-755
目的 通过62例剖宫术后再次妊娠的孕妇进行阴道试产,分析影响其成功的因素。方法 了解62例孕妇前次剖宫产的指征及妊娠间隔时间、手术方式,用B超检查胎儿双顶径、胎位、子宫疤痕愈合情况,严密观察产程进展,必要时加用催产素。结果 50例成功地阴道分娩,成功率为80.65%,产后常规宫腔控查,无子宫疤痕破裂,无孕产妇死亡,新生儿Apgar评分均为10分。结论 剖宫术后阴道分娩是可行的,并有助于降低剖宫产率  相似文献
10.
Context  More than half of the women diagnosed as having cervical cancer in the United States have not been screened within the last 3 years, despite many having had contact with the health care system. In many other regions of the world, there is only limited access to cervical cancer screening. Objective  To determine whether testing of self-collected vaginal swabs for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can be used to screen for cervical disease in women aged 35 years and older. Design  Cross-sectional observational study comparing Papanicolaou smears with HPV DNA testing of self-collected vaginal swabs. Setting  Outpatient clinics in a periurban settlement outside of Cape Town, South Africa, between January 1998 and April 1999. Participants  Screening was performed on 1415 previously unscreened black South African women aged 35 to 65 years. Intervention  Women self-collected a vaginal swab for HPV testing in the clinic and were then screened using 4 different tests: Papanicolaou smear, direct visual inspection of the cervix after the application of 5% acetic acid, cervicography, and HPV DNA testing of a clinician-obtained cervical sample. Women with abnormal results on any of the screening tests were referred for colposcopy. Main Outcome Measure  Biopsy-confirmed high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions or invasive cancer. Results  High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were identified in 47 (3.4%) of 1365 women adequately assessed, and there were 9 cases of invasive cancer. Of women with high-grade disease, 66.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.1%-77.8%) had high-risk HPV detected in self-collected vaginal samples, and 67.9% (95% CI, 53.9%-79.4%) had an abnormal Papanicolaou smear (P = .78). The false-positive rates for HPV DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples and Papanicolaou smears were 17.1% (95% CI, 15.1%-19.3%) and 12.3% (95% CI, 10.5%-14.2%), respectively (P<.001). A high-risk type of HPV DNA was detected in 83.9% (95% CI, 71.2%-91.9%) of women with high-grade disease and 15.5% (95% CI, 13.6%-17.7%) of women with no evidence of cervical disease using a clinician-obtained cervical sample. Conclusions  These results indicate that HPV testing of self-collected vaginal swabs is less specific than but as sensitive as Papanicolaou smears for detecting high-grade cervical disease in women aged 35 years and older, and HPV testing offers an important new way to increase screening in settings where cytology is not readily performed.   相似文献
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