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1.
The aim of this work was to develop highly dispersible and dry formulations of insulin for use in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) using high-pressure homogenisation (HPH) and spray-drying. Several formulations were evaluated, including formulations spray-dried without excipients and formulations coated with lipids. A physiological lipid composition based on a mixture of cholesterol and phospholipids was used to form the coating film around micronised drug particles. The production technique and excipients were chosen in order to limit the degradation of the active ingredient.The resulting powders exhibited a size and shape suitable for the deep lung deposition of drugs, and good aerodynamic features were obtained for the different formulations tested, with fine particle fractions between 46% and 63% vs. 11% for raw insulin powder. The presence of a lipid coating of up to 30% (w/w) did not significantly affect the aerodynamic behaviour, and the coated formulations also exhibited a decreased residual moisture content of between 2.3% and 3.7% vs. 4.8% for raw insulin, which should improve the long-term stability of the protein formulations. No degradation of the insulin molecule occurred during the HPH/spray-drying process, as it was shown using an HPLC method (insulin content between 98.4% and 100.5%), and the content in high molecular weight proteins, assessed using a gel filtration method, stayed below 0.4%.  相似文献   
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BackgroundInterstitial lung disease (ILD) is a serious adverse drug reaction associated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs). Its risk factors are yet to be fully elucidated. We sought to identify proteomic biomarkers associated with ILD development in erlotinib-treated Japanese patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to build predictive models.Patients and MethodsWe conducted a nested case-control study. The participants were patients with NSCLC enrolled in a phase IV study of erlotinib in whom ILD developed within 120 days after erlotinib administration. The controls were randomly selected patients without ILD from the overall study cohort who were also treated with erlotinib. Serum samples were obtained before the first administration of erlotinib and were assayed by liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the peptide and proteins associated with ILD.ResultsA total of 645 patients were enrolled in the cohort; 15 case patients and 64 controls were analyzed. When multiplicity was taken into account, we were unable to statistically verify any genuine association between individual markers and ILD. Investigation of the predictive power based on leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 at a maximum. Additional analysis suggested that 3 proteins (C3, C4A/C4B, and APOA1) have a stronger association with ILD than do the other proteins tested.ConclusionWe were unable to demonstrate predictive serum protein markers for ILD development. However, C3, C4A/C4B, and APOA1 are worthy of further investigation.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesTo test a service-based health human resources (HHR) planning approach for older adults in the context of home and long term care (LTC); to create a practical template/tools for use in various jurisdictions and/or health care settings.DesignThe most serious health needs of seniors in 2 Canadian jurisdictions were identified and linked to the specific services and associated competencies required of health care providers (HCPs) to address those needs. The amounts of each service required were quantified and compared against the capacity of HCPs to perform the services, measured using a self-assessment survey, by using a previously developed analytical framework.SettingHome and LTC sectors in Nova Scotia and Nunavut, Canada.ParticipantsRegulated and nonregulated HCPs were invited to complete either an online or paper-based competency self-assessment survey.ResultsSurvey response rates in Nova Scotia and Nunavut were 11% (160 responses) and 20% (22 responses), respectively. Comparisons of the estimated number of seniors likely to need each service with the number who can be served by the workforces in each jurisdiction indicated that the workforces in both jurisdictions are sufficiently numerous, active, productive, and competent to provide most of the services likely to be required. However, significant gaps were identified in pharmacy services, ongoing client assessment, client/family education and involvement, and client/family functional and social supports.ConclusionService-based HHR planning is feasible for identifying gaps in services required by older adults, and can guide policy makers in planning hiring/recruitment, professional development, and provider education curricula. Implementation will require commitment of policy makers and other stakeholders, as well as ongoing evaluation of its effectiveness. More broadly, the ongoing effectiveness of the approach will depend on workforce planning being conducted in an iterative way, driven by regular reevaluation of population health needs and HHR effectiveness.  相似文献   
5.
BackgroundIndia accounts for almost a third of the global deaths among newborns on their first day of birth. In spite of making significant progress in increasing institutional births, large numbers of rural Indian women are still electing to give birth at home. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with place of birth among women who had recently given birth in rural Mysore, India.MethodsBetween January 2009 and 2011, 1675 rural pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Mysore District completed interviewer-administered questionnaires on maternity care services. Ethical approval of the original study was obtained from the Institutional Review Boards of Vikram Hospital and Florida International University. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with place of birth among the 1654 (99%) women that were successfully followed up after childbirth.FindingsThe median age of the women was 20 years; the majority were educated (87%), low-income (52%), and multiparous (56%). The prevalence of home births was low (4%). Half of the women giving birth at home did not adequately plan for transportation (55%), finances (48%), or birthing with a skilled provider (55%). Multiparous women had greater odds of giving birth at home compared to public (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=7.83, p<0.001) and private institutions (AOR=7.05, p<0.001). Women attending ≥4 antenatal consultations had greater odds of giving birth at public (AOR=2.53, p=0.036) and private institutions (AOR=3.58, p=0.010). Those with higher scores of birth preparedness also had greater odds of giving birth at public (AOR=2.53, p<0.001) and private institutions (AOR=3.00, p<0.001).Conclusions and implicationsAs a means to reduce newborn mortality, maternal health interventions in India and similar populations should focus on increasing birth preparedness and institutional births among rural women, particularly among those from lower socio-economic status.  相似文献   
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Access to transport is an important determinant of health, and concessionary fares for public transport are one way to reduce the ‘transport exclusion’ that can limit access. This paper draws on qualitative data from two groups typically at risk of transport exclusion: young people (12–18 years of age, n = 118) and older citizens (60+ years of age, n = 46). The data were collected in London, UK, where young people and older citizens are currently entitled to concessionary bus travel. We focus on how this entitlement is understood and enacted, and how different sources of entitlement mediate the relationship between transport and wellbeing. Both groups felt that their formal entitlement to travel for free reflected their social worth and was, particularly for older citizens, relatively unproblematic. The provision of a concessionary transport entitlement also helped to combat feelings of social exclusion by enhancing recipients' sense of belonging to the city and to a ‘community’. However, informal entitlements to particular spaces on the bus reflected less valued social attributes such as need or frailty. Thus in the course of travelling by bus the enactment of entitlements to space and seats entailed the negotiation of social differences and personal vulnerabilities, and this carried with it potential threats to wellbeing. We conclude that the process, as well as the substance, of entitlement can mediate wellbeing; and that where the basis for providing a given entitlement is widely understood and accepted, the risks to wellbeing associated with enacting that entitlement will be reduced.  相似文献   
8.
The paper addresses a critically important area in Canadian immigration and health from both a social and a spatial perspective. It employs multilevel and contextual approaches to examine the social determinants of immigrant health as well as the place effects on self-reported health at a regional and neighborhood scale. The data come from the raw microdata file of the 2005-10 Canadian Community Health Survey (a random national health survey) and the publicly available Canadian Marginalization index based on the 2006 Census. Three populations are compared: Canadian-born, overall foreign-born, and Chinese immigrants. The results suggest various degrees of association between self-reported health, individual and lifestyle behavioral characteristics, and neighborhood material deprivation and ethnic concentration in census tracts. These factors contribute differently to the reported health of Chinese immigrants, Canada's largest recent immigrant group. A healthy immigrant effect is partially evident in the overall foreign-born population, but appears to be relatively weak in Chinese immigrants. For all groups, neighborhood deprivation moderately increases the likelihood of reporting poor health. Ethnic concentration negatively affects self-rated health, with the exception of the slight protective effect of Chinese-specific ethnic density in census tracts. The multilevel models reveal significant area inequalities across Census Metropolitan Areas/Census Agglomerations in risk of reporting unhealthy status, with greater magnitude in the foreign-born population. The vast regional variations in health among Chinese immigrants should be interpreted carefully due to the group's heavy concentration in large cities. The study contributes to the literature on ethnicity and health by systematically incorporating neighborhood contextual effects in modeling the social determinants of immigrant health status. It fills a gap in the literature on neighborhoods and health by focusing on ethnically disparate groups rather than on the general population. By revealing regional disparities in health, the paper adds a spatial perspective to the work on immigrant health.  相似文献   
9.
BackgroundAlmost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label.MethodsA cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label.ResultsThe response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience.ConclusionNon-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these findings are discussed.  相似文献   
10.
Objective. To assess reasons why survey estimates of Medicaid enrollment are 43 percent lower than raw Medicaid program enrollment counts (i.e., "Medicaid undercount").
Data Sources. Linked 2000–2002 Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) and the 2001–2002 Current Population Survey (CPS).
Data Collection Methods. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services provided the Census Bureau with its MSIS file. The Census Bureau linked the MSIS to the CPS data within its secure data analysis facilities.
Study Design. We analyzed how often Medicaid enrollees incorrectly answer the CPS health insurance item and imperfect concept alignment (e.g., inclusion in the MSIS of people who are not included in the CPS sample frame and people who were enrolled in Medicaid in more than one state during the year).
Principal Findings. The extent to which the Medicaid enrollee data were adjusted for imperfect concept alignment reduces the raw Medicaid undercount considerably (by 12 percentage points). However, survey response errors play an even larger role with 43 percent of Medicaid enrollees answering the CPS as though they were not enrolled and 17 percent reported being uninsured.
Conclusions. The CPS is widely used for health policy analysis but is a poor measure of Medicaid enrollment at any time during the year because many people who are enrolled in Medicaid fail to report it and may be incorrectly coded as being uninsured. This discrepancy should be considered when using the CPS for policy research.  相似文献   
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