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1.
十二指肠损伤的术式选择   总被引:82,自引:4,他引:78  
目的探讨十二指肠损伤后手术方式的选择和手术效果。方法对本院1988~1998年10年间手术治疗的31例十二指肠损伤病人临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果①十二指肠损伤复合伤发生率高,合并其它脏器损伤者占74%(23例),其中合并胰损伤占26%(8例);②术前诊断率低,仅为16%(5例);剖腹探查中仍有3例(10%)漏诊;③术式选择:单纯的十二指肠损伤以修补为主;十二指肠壁有缺损或合并有胰腺损伤,可采用浆膜覆盖术或十二指肠憩室化等其它手术;同时应有良好的十二指肠减压和腹腔引流;④术后并发症及死亡率发生率较高。本组死亡6例(19%);治愈25例(81%)。结论十二指肠损伤的修复应根据损伤的部位、损伤的严重程度、腹腔污染和合并伤的情况作综合考虑,选择合理的手术方式,尽可能地减少术后并发症发生率和死亡率  相似文献
2.
胰腺实性假乳头状瘤的诊断和治疗   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
Zhao YP  Hu Y  Liao Q  Dai MH  Wu WW  Cai LX  Zhu Y 《中华外科杂志》2005,43(1):53-55
目的 总结胰腺实性假乳头状瘤的诊断和治疗经验。方法 对2000年8月至2004年2月收治的12例胰腺实性假乳头状瘤病例进行回顾性研究。结果 12例患者年龄13—53岁,平均29.1岁,其中女性11例,男性1例。肿瘤位于胰头6例,胰颈部1例,胰体尾部5例。无特异性临床表现。B超发现胰腺低回声实性或囊实性占位。CT检查发现胰腺低密度占位病变,增强扫描肿瘤周边出现明显不规则强化。血清肿瘤标记物均为阴性。2例行胰十二指肠切除术,3例行胰头肿物切除术及胰管空肠吻合术,1例行胰头肿物切除术,1例行胰腺节段切除术及远端胰管空肠吻合术,5例行胰体尾及脾切除术。对10例患者进行随访,平均随访时间14.3个月,均未发现肿瘤复发转移。结论 胰腺实性假乳头状瘤是一种罕见的低度恶性胰腺肿瘤,多发于青年女性,切除肿瘤后能获得良好的预后。  相似文献
3.
Binding pancreaticojejunostomy is a new technique to minimize leakage   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41  
Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) has been the standard treatment for periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma. A leak or fistula from the pancreatic anastomosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy. In order to effectively prevent the development of pancreatic fistulae, we designed a special technique called binding pancreaticojejunostomy, by which 3 cm of the serosa-muscular sheath of the jejunum was bound to the pancreatic remnant. We have performed this procedure in 105 consecutive patients; none of the cases developed pancreatic fistula. It is a safe, simple, and efficient technique.  相似文献
4.
As of December 31, 2004, more than 23,000 pancreas transplant had been reported to the IPTR, >17,000 in the US and almost 6000 from outside the US. An analysis of US pancreas transplants performed between 1988 and 2003 showed a progressive improvement in outcome, with pancreas transplant graft survival rates (GSRs) going from 75% at 1 yr for 1988/1989 to 85% for 2002/2003 simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) cases, from 55 to 78% for pancreas after kidney (PAK) cases, and from 45 to 77% for pancreas transplants alone (PTA) cases. The improvements were due both to decreases in technical failure (TF) rates (from 12 to 6% in SPK, 13-8% in PAK, and 24-7% in PTA) and immunological failure rates (going from 7 to 2% for SPK, from 28 to 7% for PAK, and from 38 to 8% for PTA cases). These results are even more impressive under the aspect that during the same time the rate of potential risk factors increased and the duct management techniques changed from bladder to enteric drainage. The improvement in outcome allowed also an increase in the number of solitary pancreas transplants from initially 12% to now 35%. Contemporary primary deceased donor pancreas transplant outcomes were calculated separately for 2000-2004 US and non-US cases. The US patient survival rates at 1 yr were >95% in each recipient category, with 1 yr primary pancreas GSRs of 85% for SPK, 78% for PAK, and 76% for PTA (p < 0.0001). The immunological graft failure rates for 2000-2004 technically successful (TS) SPK, PAK, and PTA cases were 2, 8, and 10% at 1 yr (p = 0.0001). In the majority of all transplants ED was used for duct management (81% of SPK, 67% of PAK, and 56% for PTA cases). Of the ED transplants, venous drainage via the portal system was used for 20% of SPK, 23% of PAK, and 35% of PTA cases. Duct management technique did not have a significant impact on overall pancreas graft function in the univariate or the multivariate model. The outcomes of ED and BD transplants are comparable with 85 vs. 87% at 1 yr for SPK, 77 vs. 80% for PAK, and 72 vs. 79% for PTA. The overall TF rate was higher in ED pancreas transplants but this difference did reach significance only in SPK. In addition, in technically successful PTA the immunological graft loss rate was higher in ED vs. BD transplants (15 vs. 5% at 1 yr). The different vascular management techniques did not seem to have an impact on the outcome of the pancreas transplants. Kidney GSRs were not significantly different for ED vs. BD SPK cases, 93 and 91% at 1 yr (p = 0.24). The overall conversion rate from BD to ED was 9% at 1 yr and 17% at 3 yr post-transplant. The most influential factor for patient survival in SPK and PAK in the multivariate and the univariate models was the status of the transplanted organ. The hazard ratio (HR) for a failed kidney was 14.99 in SPK and 9.17 in PAK (p = 0.0001). The HR for a failed pancreas graft was 3.51 in SPK and 4.17 for PAK (p = 0.0001). In PTA a failed pancreas graft did not have a direct impact on patient survival. SPK and PAK patients older than 44 yr at the time of transplants also showed an increased mortality risk, but at the same time the risk of immunological graft loss was significantly decreased for those patients. TAC&MMF remained the dominant maintenance immunosuppressant for 2000-2004 US cases (approximately two-third) in all three categories and with this regime 1-year GSRs were > or =80% in all three recipient categories. The results were comparable (> or =83% 1-year GSR) for patients (approximately 10%) treated with Sirolimus (SIR) under various protocols. In regard to non-US pancreas transplants, even for 2000-2004 the overwhelming majority continued to be in the SPK category (91%), with 1-year patient, kidney and pancreas survival rates of 94, 92, and 87%. Solitary transplants are still very rarely done outside the US. Non-US PAK GSR at 1 yr was 85%, non-US PTA GSR at 1 yr was 76%. In summary, with the new advancements in immunosuppression and changes in surgical techniques the outcomes in patient survival and pancreas transplant graft function continue to improve even with an increasing proportion of high risk patients in all three categories.  相似文献
5.
胰腺实性假乳头肿瘤的外科治疗(附21例报告)   总被引:29,自引:1,他引:28  
目的 总结21例胰腺实性假乳头肿瘤(SPT)在本中心的外科治疗方法及其疗效。方法 回顾性分析21例SPT并分成包膜完整组和无完整包膜组,经SAS6.12统计软件包进行统计、分析。结果 所有患者目前无肿瘤复发。肿瘤扩大切除术中各术式的选择与肿瘤部位有显著性差别(P=0.038);肿瘤包膜是否完整与病程(P=0.029)、术中冰冻判断有恶性细胞(P=0.001)及肿瘤大小(P=0.0004)有显著性差异;肿瘤包膜是否完整的判断结果直接影响所采取的手术方式(P=0.001)。结论 手术切除是治疗SPT的有效途径,预后良好。  相似文献
6.
Morbidity, mortality, and technical factors of distal pancreatectomy   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic leak is a major source of morbidity associated with pancreatic surgery. We sought to identify disease and technique-dependent factors associated with morbidity and mortality after distal pancreatectomy. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy during a 5-year period. Clinical, technical, and pathologic data were correlated with operative morbidity or mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients underwent distal pancreatectomy for primary pancreatic disease, extrapancreatic malignancy, or trauma. Overall perioperative mortality and morbidity rates were 4% and 47%, respectively. Pancreatic leak was the most common complication, occurring in 26% of patients. Overall complications and pancreatic leaks occurred more often after distal pancreatectomy for trauma and in patients with a sutured pancreatic stump closure. CONCLUSIONS: Distal pancreatectomy can be performed with a low rate of mortality, though pancreatic leak is a common cause of morbidity. The urgency of the procedure and the method of pancreatic stump closure may influence postoperative morbidity.  相似文献
7.
Microcirculatory derangements in acute pancreatitis   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
During the past decade, a considerable number of experimental studies have confirmed the hypothesis that microcirculatory derangements play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, including the process of conversion from edematous to necrotizing injury. Predominant microcirculatory disorders are nutritive capillary perfusion failure, with the consequence of prolonged focal hypoxia or anoxia, and inflammation-associated microvascular leukocyte recruitment, CD11b- and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1-mediated leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and loss of endothelial integrity, which may result in both edema formation and necrosis. A variety of proinflammatory mediators, such as oxygen radicals, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, and interleukins, but also bradykinin and endothelins, seem to be involved in triggering the manifestations of these microcirculatory disorders. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10, as well as nitric oxide, are thought to be capable of protecting from these pancreatitis-associated microvascular injuries. This knowledge may be encouraging for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, aiming at the attenuation of microcirculatory disorders, and, thus, preventing tissue injury in acute pancreatitis. Received: July 4, 2000 / Accepted: December 28, 2000  相似文献
8.
Binding pancreaticojejunostomy: 150 consecutive cases without leakage   总被引:21,自引:0,他引:21  
The objective of this study was to verify the safety of a new technique termed "binding pancreaticojejunostomy" in a prospective cohort study. Pancreaticojejunal anastomostic leakage is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy. To prevent the development of pancreatic fistulas, we designed a special technique that we termed binding pancreaticojejunostomy. Binding pancreaticojejunostomy entails binding 3 cm of the serosamuscular sheath of the jejunum to the intussuscepted pancreatic stump. From January 1996 to May 2001, a total of 150 consecutive patients were treated with this type of pancreaticojejunostomy, including typical pancreaticoduodenectomy in 120, hepatopancreaticoduodenectomy in 17, pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy in 10, and duodenal-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas in three. None of the patients developed pancreatic fistulas. The overall morbidity was 31.3%. The following complications occurred: gastrointestinal bleeding in six, pulmonary infection in 12, wound infection in 20, delayed gastric emptying in three, incision dehiscence in four, and hepatic insufficiency in two. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 19.8 ± 5 days. Binding pancreaticojejunostomy is a safe, simple, and effective technique. Presented at the Fourth Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Congress, Miami, Florida, February 27-March 1, 2003.  相似文献
9.
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) followed by radiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy have experienced median overall survival from 18 to 24 months and an actuarial 2-year overall survival from 34% to 48%. We previously reported an 84% 2-year survival using a novel adjuvant chemoradiation protocol that included alpha interferon. This report describes the continued observations regarding this methodology with longer follow-up and more than twice the number of patients as the original report. METHODS: From July 1995 to May 2002, 43 patients with adenocarcinomas in the pancreatic head underwent PD at our institution. The mean age was 62 years (range 29 to 77) and 60% were men. Final pathologic findings were stage I (2%), II (12%), III (72%), and IVa (14%) while 84% had positive lymph nodes (average number of nodes positive was 3.2 nodes, (range 0 to 13). Tumor extended through the capsule of the surgical specimen in 70%. These patients then received our investigational protocol consisting of external-beam irradiation at a dose of 4,500 to 5,400 cGy (25 fractions over 5 weeks) and three-drug chemotherapy: continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m(2) daily, days 1 to 35), weekly intravenous bolus cisplatin (30 mg/m(2) daily, days 1,8,15,22,29), and subcutaneous alpha, interferon (3 x 10(6) units, days 1 to 35). This chemoradiation was followed by continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m(2) daily, weeks 9 to 14 and 17 to 22). Chemoradiation was generally initiated between 6 and 8 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: All patients completed radiation therapy. There were no deaths due to chemoradiation but 42% were hospitalized during chemoradiation, virtually all due to gastrointestinal toxicity. With a mean follow-up time of 31.9 months, 67% of the patients are alive. Therefore, the median survivorship has not been reached. Actuarial overall survival for the 1-, 2-, and 5-year periods was 95% (confidence interval [CI] = 91% to 98%), 64% (CI = 56% to 72%), and 55% (CI = 46% to 65%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This follow-up report further suggests overall survival may be improved for patients with adenocarcinoma in the pancreatic head using an adjuvant interferon-based chemoradiation protocol. These results are obtained despite a high incidence of node involvement and advanced tumor stage. From this limited patient series, the actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates suggest a potential for improved long-term survival. Further study of this regimen in a multiinstitutional setting is needed.  相似文献
10.
INTRODUCTION: The development of acute pancreatitis is characterized by profound changes in pancreatic microcirculation. Using in vivo microscopy with fluorescent-labeled erythrocytes as tracers we studied changes in pancreatic microcirculation in an improved rat model of necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) in comparison to edematous pancreatitis (EP) and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-one male Wistar rats had their pancreatae exteriorized in a temperature-controlled immersion chamber followed by intravenous administration of fluorescent-labeled autologous erythrocytes. EP was induced by intraductal saline and intravenous caerulein (5 microg/kg/h) for 6 h (n = 7) and NP by controlled intraductal infusion of glycodeoxycholic acid (10 mmol/L) followed by intravenous caerulein (n = 7). Control animals received intraductal and intravenous saline (n = 7). The determination of pancreatic microcirculation was performed before as well as 1, 3, and 6 h after intraductal infusion by correlating the number of passing labeled erythrocytes/capillary/min with their concentration per microliter of arterial blood. RESULTS: Pancreatic capillary flow in control animals remained constant over the 6-h observation period. Pancreatic capillary flow in the EP group rapidly increased to 188% of baseline after 3 h and remained significantly elevated throughout the experiments (P = 0.0001). In contrast, pancreatic capillary flow decreased significantly in the group suffering NP with values 46.7% of baseline after 6 h (P = 0.0001). Complete capillary stasis developed in 38% of investigated capillaries in the NP group compared to 0-1% in both other groups (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Pancreatic microcirculation in mild edematous pancreatitis is significantly increased while the evolution of necrotizing pancreatitis in the model studied herein is characterized by a dramatic reduction in pancreatic capillary flow in conjunction with areas of capillary stasis. These results underline the pathophysiologic relevance of the model and of therapeutic measures aimed at an improvement of pancreatic microcirculation in clinical necrotizing pancreatitis.  相似文献
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