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1.
Background: Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes a variety of metabolically important substances including adipokines. These factors affect insulin sensitivity and may represent a link between obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (DM), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study uses real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification of mRNAs encoding adiponectin, leptin, and resistin on snap-frozen samples of intra-abdominal adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: Morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were studied. Patients were classified into two groups: Group A (with insulin resistance) (N=11; glucose 149.84 ± 40.56 mg/dL; serum insulin 8.28 ± 3.52 μU/mL), and Group B (without insulin resistance) (N=10; glucose 102.2 ± 8.43 mg/dL; serum insulin 3.431 ± 1.162 μU/mL). Results: Adiponectin mRNA in intra-abdominal adipose tissue and serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in Group A compared to Group B patients (P<0.016 and P<0.03, respectively). Although serum resistin was higher in Group A than in Group B patients (P<0.005), resistin gene expression was not different between the two groups. Finally, for leptin, neither serum level nor gene expression was different between the two groups. Serum adiponectin level was the only predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in this study (P=0.024). Conclusions: Obese patients with insulin resistance have decreased serum adiponectin and increased serum resistin. Additionally, adiponectin gene expression is also decreased in the adipose tissue of these patients. This low level of adiponectin expression may predispose patients to the progressive form of NAFLD or NASH.  相似文献
2.
Adipose tissue has recently emerged as an active endocrine organ that secretes a variety of metabolically important substances, collectively called adipocytokines or adipokines. In this review we summarize the effects of the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin on the vasculature and their potential role for pathogenesis of vascular disease. Leptin is associated with arterial wall thickness, decreased vessel distensibility, and elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. Leptin possesses procoagulant and antifibrinolytic properties, and it promotes thrombus and atheroma formation, probably through the leptin receptors by promoting vascular inflammation, proliferation, and calcification, and by increasing oxidative stress. Research for development of pharmacologic antagonism for the leptin receptor is currently under way. Adiponectin inhibits the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P selectin. Therefore, it interferes with monocyte adherence to endothelial cells and their subsequent migration to the subendothelial space, one of the initial events in the development of atherosclerosis. Adiponectin also inhibits the transformation of macrophages to foam cells in vitro and decreases their phagocytic activity. Resistin, discovered in 2001, represents the newest of the adipokines and was named for its ability to promote insulin resistance. Resistin increases the expression of the adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, up-regulates the monocyte chemoattractant chemokine-1, and promotes endothelial cell activation via ET-1 release. Although many aspects of its function need further clarification, it appears that resistin will add significantly to our knowledge of the pathophysiology of vascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.  相似文献
3.
Adiponectin (ADPN), exclusively expressed and secreted from adipocytes, is a recently discovered protein hormone with anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties in contrast to other well-known adipocytokines. It has independent negative associations with obesity and hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance. Apart from chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome was suggested as the only renal disease condition associated with raised plasma ADPN levels in adults. We aimed to evaluate the effect of nephrotic state on serum adiponectin (ADPN) levels in pediatric patients with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) by comparing the levels in relapse and remission as well as in control subjects and documenting possible relationships between ADPN and proteinuria as well as serum protein/lipid parameters. 34 patients with SRNS and 22 healthy age, sex and BMI-matched control subjects were enrolled into the study. 15 of the 34 SRNS patients had active diseases, and these were known as the SRNS-relapse group (ten relapsed and five newly-diagnosed patients), while the remaining 19 were in complete remission (the SRNS-remission group). Serum ADPN levels, blood chemistry (protein/albumin, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (Cho) and lipoprotein levels) and 24-hour proteinuria were studied. ADPN levels were determined by ELISA. As expectedly, there were significant alterations in serum protein-lipid parameters and 24-hour proteinuria levels in SRNS patients consistent with their disease activity. SRNS-relapse patients had substantially higher ADPN levels (36.77±15.06 (5.61–59.41, median 39.84) g/ml), compared to those in SRNS-remission and control groups (14.17±6.02 (3.28–29.40, median 12.80) g/ml and 11.84±7.53 (2.81–31.46, median 10.85) g/ml, respectively, p=0.001). There were strong positive correlations between serum ADPN levels and Cho (r=0.637, p=0.000), TG (r=0.516, p=0.002), low density lipoprotein (r=0.614, p=0.000) levels and 24-hour proteinuria (r=0.828, p=0.000) levels, whereas protein (r=–0.695, p=0.000) and albumin (r=0.732, p=0.000) levels were inversely correlated with ADPN levels. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between ADPN and proteinuria (p=0.000). In conclusion, remarkably increased serum ADPN levels were detected in SRNS-relapse compared to those in SRNS-remission. This phenomenon might be the reflection of a compensatory response to nephrotic state characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia.  相似文献
4.

Summary

Adipose-modulated biochemical signal that explains some of the association between fat mass and bone mineral density (BMD) is adiponectin. The results demonstrated an independent association between adiponectin and BMD, while the influence of adiponectin on bone mineral content is mediated by fat free mass in middle-aged women.

Introduction

Positive association between fat mass (FM) and bone mineral density (BMD) is mediated by biochemical factors.

Methods

The relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and BMD in 98 sedentary premenopausal women aged 38–49 years with a body mass index range of 20.0–42.1 kg/m2 was examined. Different body composition and blood biochemical parameters were measured to adjust for possible confounding variables.

Results

The association between adiponectin and BMD values (total BMD: ß = −0.919; p = 0.0001, femoral neck BMD: ß = −0.925; p = 0.0001 and lumbar spine BMD: ß = −0.912; p = 0.0001) was independent of the influences that measured body composition, hormonal and insulin resistance factors may exert on BMD (p < 0.02). However, adiponectin explained only 3–12% of the variations in measured BMD variables. Similarly, adiponectin was associated with total bone mineral content (BMC; ß = −0.911; p = 0.0001) and remained associated in different analyses that controlled for possible confounding parameters (p < 0.01). However, the association between adiponectin and total BMC was no longer significant when adjusted for fat free mass (FFM; p > 0.21).

Conclusions

Adiponectin is an independent predictor of BMD, while its independent contribution to the interindividual variance in measured values is only modest. The influence of adiponectin on total BMC is mediated or confounded by FFM in middle-aged premenopausal women.
  相似文献
5.
OBJECTIVE: Leptin and adiponectin, well-recognized adipocytokines, are reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of icodextrin-based dialysis solution on adipocytokine metabolism. METHODS: In 12 non-diabetic anuric patients on peritoneal dialysis, dialysis solution was changed from glucose-based dialysis solution to icodextrin-based dialysis solution for 6 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride), insulin, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity index by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were compared before and after the use of the icodextrin solution. RESULTS: Plasma leptin level was decreased from 15.6 (2.5-69.0) to 7.3 (2.9-45.9) ng/ml (P = 0.018) and plasma adiponectin level increased from 11.6 (6.2-19.6) to 17.6 (7.8-33.0) microg/ml (P = 0.002). A reduction in plasma insulin level from 33.1 (13.8-54.1) to 19.1 (5.8-37.3) muU/ml (P = 0.009) and HOMA-IR from 8.22 (3.68-15.09) to 5.15 (1.40-13.78) (P = 0.015) was observed. While plasma total cholesterol level remained similar, HDL-cholesterol level increased, from 36.0 (22-45) to 43.5 (30-69) mg/dl (P = 0.008) and the triglyceride level decreased, from 174.0 (140-250) to 116.5 (81-207) mg/dl (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Icodextrin-based dialysis solution improves abnormal adipocytokine metabolism, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, which are known to be associated with atherosclerosis. These results suggest that the use of icodextrin-based dialysis solution might be useful in preventing atherosclerosis in PD patients. Long-term effects of icodextrin-based dialysis solution on the atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients should be tested.  相似文献
6.
Background: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with orexigenic properties, primarily produced by the stomach. Leptin and adiponectin are the two adiposity products that participate in body weight control. Leptin always decreases and adiponectin increases after weight loss. Different changes in fasting ghrelin levels have been reported following bariatric surgery. In this study, we compare the changes in fasting ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels in 3 groups of patients who achieved weight loss by either diet, MacLean vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS). Methods: Serum fasting ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin concentration was measured in 40 obese patients who achieved weight loss by either diet (n=14), VBG (n=13) or BPD-DS (n=13), before and after weight loss. The follow-up period was 18 months for BPD-DS and VBG and 6 months for diet. Serum ghrelin level was measured by ELISA. Results: BMI was significantly decreased in all 3 groups: 9.2±2.4% (P<0.01) following diet, 38.47±7.26% (P<0.01) after VBG, and 42.88±9.09% after BPD-DS (P<0.01). Serum fasting ghrelin level increased after diet (110.45±117.84%, P=0.002) and VBG (65.48±92.93%, P=0.001),but decreased after BPD-DS (−21.63±28.63%, P=0.019). Leptin concentration decreased and adiponectin increased in all groups. Conclusions: Unlike after diet or gastric restrictive surgery, BPD-DS is associated with markedly suppressed ghrelin levels, possibly contributing to the weight-reducing effect of this operation. Sleeve gastrectomy seems to be the main cause of this reduction.  相似文献
7.
The fat mass participates in the regulation of glucose and insulin metabolism through the release of adipocytokines in a mechanism called the adipoinsular axis. Putative adipocytokines include leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Obesity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery for morbidly obese patients leads to rapid and prolonged improvement in insulin resistance and T2DM in the vast majority of patients. We have previously proposed that the rapid improvement in insulin resistance observed following bariatric surgery is mediated by changes in incretin levels of the entero-insular axis and that long-term improvement is modulated by fat mass loss and changes in adipocytokine levels of the adipoinsular axis. In this review, we examine the information that supports a role of leptin, adiponectin and resistin in the development of insulin resistance and T2DM. Increasing levels of leptin and decreasing levels of adiponectin correlate with worsening insulin resistance in obese individuals. We also explore the relationship between changes in adipocytokines following bariatric surgery and long-term improvement in insulin resistance and T2DM. Leptin levels drop and adiponectin levels rise following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. These changes correlate with weight loss and improvement in insulin. Although resistin may play an important role in explaining insulin resistance, animal and human studies currently show conflicting results.  相似文献
8.
BACKGROUND: Despite the favourable effects of adiponectin on the vasculature and insulin resistance (IR), levels are increased in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), in whom both IR and atherosclerosis are prevalent. METHODS: To investigate this paradox, we examined the distribution of adiponectin isoforms, the expression of adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) mRNA on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 41 patients with ESKD on haemodialysis and 41 matched controls, and its function by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of AdipoR on PBMC. We also compared the expression of AdipoR on PBMC with that on muscle and subcutaneous and visceral fat in 10 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. RESULTS: The proportion of the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform of adiponectin was increased in the dialysis group (P = 0.001), even though these patients were significantly insulin resistant compared with controls (P = 0.006). AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 on PBMC were also increased in patients with ESKD (P < 0.05 and P = 0.007, respectively), but levels did not correlate with IR, the HMW isoform or other anthropometric measurements. There was a strong correlation between AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 on PBMC in ESKD and in subcutaneous and visceral fat in controls. However, there was no relationship between AdipoR in PBMC, muscle or visceral fat. Phosphorylation of AMPK by recombinant adiponectin showed that AdipoR on PBMC, from controls and ESKD patients, were equally functional. CONCLUSIONS: IR in ESKD is not explained by the change in isoformic distribution, or by AdipoR down-regulation or dysfunction. Rather, this receptor-ligand axis is up-regulated and may be a beneficial response to the inflammatory milieu of ESKD.  相似文献
9.
10.
AIM: Plasma adiponectin levels are well associated with metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between hypertension and plasma adiponectin levels is not clear. Also, there is not enough data about the effects of different antihypertensive regimens on plasma adiponectin levels. METHODS: Ninety-six hypertensive patients (48 male, 48 female) who fulfil the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Patients were treated for 3 months with metoprolol (n = 18, 100 mg/day), amlodipine (n = 20, 10 mg/day), doxazosin (n = 18, 4 mg/day), ramipril (n = 20, 5 mg/day) and valsartan (n = 20, 80 mg/day). Blood biochemistry and plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured both before and after the study. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis assessment index (HOMA). RESULTS: Plasma adiponectin levels were correlated with the total cholesterol (r = -0.244, P = 0.017), triglyceride (r = -0.306, P = 0.002), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = 0.286, P = 0.005), body mass index (r = -374, P < 0.001), systolic (r = -502, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressures (r = -235, P = 0.021). The independent predictors of plasma adiponectin levels were HOMA (beta = -0.199, P = 0.02), body mass index (beta = -0.313, P < 0.001) and systolic blood pressures (beta = -0.483, P < 0.001). Ramipril and valsartan increased the plasma adiponectin levels significantly higher than the other regimens (P < 0.05 for both) while metoprolol did not make a significant effect. CONCLUSION: According to the results, plasma adiponectin levels are associated with the arterial blood pressures, body fat content and the lipid parameters in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. The effects of antihypertensive drugs on plasma adiponectin levels are parallel to their effects on blood pressures and insulin sensitivities. The different effects of several regimens on plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivities may account for the diversity of the cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertension.  相似文献
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