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1.
一期后路病灶清除植骨融合内固定治疗胸腰椎结核   总被引:18,自引:2,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
目的:探讨一期后路病灶清除植骨融合内固定治疗胸腰椎结核的可行性及疗效,并与前后路联合手术相比较.方法:同顾分析2006年1月至2008年10月收治的67例胸腰椎结核患者,其中后路手术组(A组)38例.行一期后路病灶清除、植骨融合、内固定术;前后路联合手术组(B组)29例,行一期前路病灶清除、植骨融合、后路内固定术.评价两组患者的手术时间、术中出血量、住院天数及手术前后的ASIA分级、Cobb角、血沉变化情况,并进行比较分析.结果:A组手术时间平均为160.4±20.5min,术中出血平均为760.7±146.2ml,住院天数平均为13.6±3.2d;B组分别为231.4±27.3min、1023.8±197.9ml和18.7±3.6d,两组间比较有显著性差异(PO.05).结论:一期后路病灶清除、植骨融合、内固定术治疗胸腰椎结核与前后路联合术式均可获得较好的治疗效果,但后路术式手术时间短、出血少、住院时间短.  相似文献
2.
椎弓根钉固定结合注射性硫酸钙椎体成形术治疗胸腰椎骨折   总被引:13,自引:1,他引:12  
目的探讨椎弓根钉复位固定结合注射性硫酸钙(CSC)椎体成形术治疗胸腰椎骨折的方法和疗效。方法自2004年6月~2005年6月,对21例胸腰椎骨折采用椎弓根钉复位、固定后,再通过椎弓根将伤椎塌陷终板骨块推顶复位,灌注可注射性CSC行椎体成形术的治疗方法。术后随访并评估此方法的临床疗效。结果平均每个椎体灌注CSC 5.5 mL;2例术中发生椎管内渗漏,漏出呈液态,术后患者无神经症状加重;根据影像学评估,随访时测得Cobb角、椎体前缘高度比值[分别为6.7°±8.1°,(76.7±6.9)%]与术前[分别为21.6°±6.5°,(44.9±2.1)%]比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而与术后即刻[分别为6.2°±8.9°,(78.3±7.7)%]比较,差异无统计学意义(P> 0.05)。经8~14个月(平均11.5个月)随访,无椎弓根钉失败病例。结论椎弓根钉复位、固定后采用可注射性CSC行椎体成形术操作简单,无椎管内占位及栓塞等并发症发生,安全性高,可有效恢复椎体力学性能,减少单纯椎弓根钉固定后断钉及椎体高度再丢失等并发症。  相似文献
3.
4.
Atlantoaxial fixation using the polyaxial screw–rod system   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
The aim of this study is to evaluate the first results of the atlantoaxial fixation using polyaxial screw–rod system. Twenty-eight patients followed-up 12–29 months (average 17.1 months) were included in this study. The average age was 59.5 years (range 23–89 years). The atlantoaxial fusion was employed in 20 patients for an acute injury to the upper cervical spine, in 1 patient with rheumatoid arthritis for atlantoaxial vertical instability, in 1 patient for C1–C2 osteoarthritis, in 2 patients for malunion of the fractured dens. Temporary fixation was applied in two patients for type III displaced fractures of the dens and in two patients for the atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation. Retrospectively, we evaluated operative time, intraoperative bleeding and the interval of X-ray exposure. The resulting condition was subjectively evaluated by patients. We evaluated also the placement, direction and length of the screws. Fusion or stability in the temporary fixation was evaluated on radiographs taken at 3, 6, 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months after the surgery. As concerns complications, intraoperatively we monitored injury of the nerve structures and the vertebral artery. Monitoring of postoperative complications was focused on delayed healing of the wound, breaking or loosening of screws and development of malunion. Operative time ranged from 35 to 155 min, (average 83 min). Intraoperative blood loss ranged from 50 to 1,500 ml (average 540 ml). The image intensifier was used for a period of 24 s to 2 min 36 s (average 1 min 6 s). Within the postoperative evaluation, four patients complained of paresthesia in the region innervated by the greater occipital nerve. A total of 56 screws were inserted into C1, their length ranged from 26 to 34 mm (average, 30.8 mm). All screws were positioned correctly in the C1 lateral mass. Another 56 screws were inserted into C2. Their length ranged from 28 to 36 mm (average 31.4 mm). Three screws were malpositioned: one screw perforated the spinal canal and two screws protruded into the vertebral artery canal. C1–C2 stability was achieved in all patients 12 weeks after the surgery. No clinically manifested injury of the vertebral artery or nerve structures was observed in any of these cases. As for postoperative complications, we recorded wound dehiscence in one patient. The Harms C1–C2 fixation is a very effective method of stabilizing the atlantoaxial complex. The possibility of a temporary fixation without damage to the atlantoaxial joints and of reduction after the screws and rods had been inserted is quite unique.  相似文献
5.
This morphometric and experimental study was designed to assess the dimensions and axes of the subaxial cervical pedicles and to compare the accuracy of two different techniques for subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement using newly designed aiming devices. Transpedicular fixation is increasingly used for stabilizing the subaxial cervical spine. Development of the demanding technique is based on morphometric studies of the pedicle anatomy. Several surgical techniques have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility and accuracy. The study was carried out on six conserved human cadavers (average age 85 years). Axes and dimensions of the pedicles C3-C7 (60 pedicles) were measured using multislice computed tomography (CT) images prior to surgery. Two groups consisting of 3 specimens and 30 pedicles each were established according to the screw placement technique. For surgical technique 1 (ST1) a para-articular mini-laminotomy was performed. Guidance of the drill through the pedicle with a handheld aiming device attached onto the medial aspect of the pedicle inside the spinal canal. Screw hole preparation monitored by lateral fluoroscopy. In surgical technique 2 (ST2) a more complex aiming device was used for screw holes drilling. It consists of a frame with a fully adjustable radiolucent arm for carrying the instruments necessary for placing the screws. The arm was angled according to the cervical pedicle axis as determined by the preoperative CT scans. Drilling was monitored by lateral fluoroscopy. In either technique 3.5 mm screws made of carbon fiber polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) were inserted. The use of the CF-PEEK screws allowed for precise postoperative CT-assessment since this material does not cause artifacts. Screw placement was qualified from ideal to unacceptable into four grades: I = screw centered in pedicle; IIa = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; IIb = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter without contact to neurovascular structures; III = screw more than one-fourth outside the pedicle with contact to neurovascular structures. Fifty-six pedicle screws could be evaluated according to the same CT protocol that was used preoperatively. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement did not reveal significant differences between techniques 1 and 2. A tendency towards less severe misplacements (grade III) was seen in ST2 (15% in ST2 vs. 23% in ST1) as well as a higher rate of screw positions graded IIa (62% in ST2 vs. 43% in ST1). C4 and C5 were identified to be the most critical vertebral levels with three malpositioned screws each. Because of the variability of cervical pedicles preoperative CT evaluation with multiplanar reconstructions of the pedicle anatomy is essential for transpedicular screw placement in the cervical spine. Cadaver studies remain mandatory to develop safer and technically less demanding procedures. A similar study is projected to further develop the technique of CPS fixation with regard to safety and clinical practicability.  相似文献
6.
AO纯钛带锁钢板在颈椎前路固定的初步报告   总被引:9,自引:9,他引:64  
报告了对15例颈椎疾患患者行颈前路减压植骨融合并采用AO颈椎纯钛带锁钢板固定。经6个月~8.2个月的随访,所有病例植骨均完全愈合,无一例发生钢板螺钉松动等并发症。颈椎带锁钢板可使固定节段有高度的内在稳定性,并具有操作简便、安全、并发症少、内固定材料生物相容性良好、无磁性等优点,尤其适用于颈椎外伤、肿瘤及退行性变的治疗。  相似文献
7.
New implants and new surgical approaches should be tested in vitro for primary stability in standardized laboratory tests in order to decide the most appropriate approach before being accepted for clinical use. Due to the complex and still unknown loading of the spine in vivo a variety of different test loading conditions have been used, making comparison of the results from different groups almost impossible. This recommendation was developed in a series of workshops with research scientists, orthopedic and trauma surgeons, and research and development executives from spinal implant companies. The purpose was to agree on in vitro testing conditions that would allow results from various research groups to be compared. This paper describes the recommended loading methods, specimen conditions, and analysis parameters resulting from these workshops. Received: 23 June 1997 Revised: 12 November 1997 Accepted: 23 December 1997  相似文献
8.
脊柱结核术后复发危险因素的分析   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
目的:探讨脊柱结核术后复发的危险因素。方法:将1995年1月~2005年1月脊柱结核术后复发的59例患者临床资料与同期术后未复发的216例脊柱结核患者的资料对比,应用Logistic回归分析比较两组患者的年龄、性别、自身营养状况、合并脊柱外结核情况、病灶范围、手术清除病灶是否彻底、手术前及手术后是否正规化疗、手术后病灶部位是否严格制动、术前是否存在其它合并症、术后是否存在其它并发症与术后脊柱结核复发的相关强度.推测可能导致术后脊柱结核复发的危险因素。结果:手术前及手术后不能坚持正规化疗、手术后病灶部位未严格制动、手术清除病灶不彻底、自身营养不良、病灶范围广5个因素与术后脊柱结核复发有显著相关性(P〈0.05)。结论:术前及术后正规化疗、加强营养、术中病灶清除彻底、术后病灶部位严格制动是预防和减少脊柱结核术后复发的关键。  相似文献
9.
头盆环牵引全脊柱截骨内固定治疗重度脊柱弯曲   总被引:9,自引:9,他引:0  
[目的]介绍头盆环牵引全脊柱截骨加内固定治疗重度脊柱弯曲的手术方法,并总结185例重度脊柱弯曲的治疗结果。[方法]对重度脊柱侧弯患者,先用头盆环牵引,使重弯变为轻弯,以便置入器械的安装,再在头盆环牵引下进行截骨矫正畸形和内固定手术,术后继续配戴头盆环制动,术后第2d即可下床站立活动,给护理工作带来极大方便。[结果]作者自1983~2003年,采用此法治疗重度脊柱侧弯185例,平均矫正率是70.32%。脊柱截骨断端能达到坚固的骨性融合,矫正率丢失平均在5°以内,术后晚期并发脱钩者4例,均经再次手术固定解决,对矫正效果无影响。1例术后1年并发感染,拆除置入器械后,伤口很快愈合,X线所见植骨愈合良好。1例并发神经根疼痛,而后逐渐减轻,所有病例未见脊髓损伤和神经系统并发症发生。[结论]头盆环牵引加全脊柱截骨是治疗重度脊柱侧弯的有效方法,对那些仅用单纯器械无法安装,置入困难的病例,经头盆环牵引后,内固定器械容易安装,再加上全脊柱截骨,能使弯曲的脊柱进一步伸直,减轻了内固定器械所承受的负荷力,避免了脱钩断棍的发生,为治疗重度脊柱侧弯的有效手段。  相似文献
10.
脊柱失稳的因素及其对策   总被引:8,自引:5,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
董福慧 《中国骨伤》2008,21(8):563-565
脊柱的稳定是一个倍受关注的话题,由此引出的种种学说、疗法、技术层出不穷。尤其是近年来随着脊柱微创外科技术的不断成熟,高科技材料向生物医学领域的渗透,各种有关脊柱稳定的手术方法屡见报道,可以说我们迎来了一个学术繁荣、技术多样、百花齐放的脊柱外科新时代。  相似文献
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