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1.
上海市1582例中老年男子勃起功能障碍流行病学调查   总被引:60,自引:6,他引:54  
为调查我国中老年男性人群勃起功能障碍的患病率及其高危因素.本文用描述流行病学方法,采用多阶段抽样方法在城市一般人群中抽取上海市区40岁以上的男性居民1582例,完成勃起功能障碍自答问卷.结果1582例中ED患病率为73.1%,且随其年龄增长而上升,60岁以上者上升幅度尤为明显.影响ED患病率的有关因素是年龄、心理性、器质性疾病等.其中,内分泌疾病(糖尿病),心血管病变、泌尿生殖器官疾病患者中,ED发病率较高.经济收入状况与ED患病率有显著相关性,而教育文化程度与ED患病率无相关性.  相似文献
2.
腹腔镜胆囊切除术并发症的危险因素分析   总被引:58,自引:0,他引:58  
目的 探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术 (LC)后并发症的危险因素。方法 回顾性分析 1991年3月至 2 0 0 3年 6月 11974例腹腔镜胆囊切除术并发症的临床资料 ,采用 χ2 检验和Logistic回归方法对可能导致LC并发症的 15个临床相关因素进行多因素回归分析。结果 LC术后并发症的发生率为1 896 % (2 2 7/11974 ) ,中转手术率为 2 389% (2 86 /11974 ) ,其中因发生并发症而中转开腹 6 5例 ,占2 2 7% (6 5 /2 86 )。Logistic回归分析显示 ,按其对并发症发生影响强弱程度 ,Calot三角粘连、病期、术者的手术经验、胆囊壁厚度 (B超 )、胆囊与周围粘连依次为导致LC并发症发生的主要危险因素。结论 加强医师的腹腔镜技术培训 ,正确掌握中转开腹的时机是降低LC手术严重并发症发生的有效措施。  相似文献
3.
骨科创伤患者深静脉血栓危险因素的研究   总被引:41,自引:1,他引:40  
目的研究骨科创伤患者深静脉血栓(deep vein thrombosis,DVT)的发生率,探讨骨科创伤患者DVT发生的危险因素。方法以2003年11月至2004年10月天津医院收治的新鲜四肢及骨盆骨折患者为研究对象,通过对不同年龄组患者的骨折类型、受伤机制、肿胀程度、既往DVT病史、手术及治疗方法等资料进行统计,并以3次彩色超声多普勒检查为诊断依据。需要手术的患者入院24h内进行第1次静脉多普勒检查,第2次和第3次检查分别在术前2d及术后7d;非手术患者3次检查分别在入院后24h、第5及14天。将需要分析的数据输入临床报告系统数据库1.1版,进行统计学分析及DVT发生率的流行病学分析。结果统计的547例患者中,平均年龄为39.6岁,DVT发生率为12.4%。以股骨干骨折DVT发生率为最高达30.6%,其次为髋部骨折15.7%,膝关节周围骨折14.5%,胫腓骨骨折10.8%。3个部位以上的多部位骨折患者DVT发生率为50%,单部位骨折患者DVT的发生率低于10%。超过半数的DVT(56.7%)发生于受伤3d之内。随着年龄增加DVT发生的风险也随之增大,年龄超过60岁患者的发病风险为184%。吸烟患者发生DVT的危险几乎是非吸烟患者的2倍。结论DVT在骨科创伤患者中具有一定的发生率,其年龄、病史、骨折部位、多发骨折及受伤距手术时间等均与DVT发生相关,须引起骨科临床医生的足够重视,并采取预防措施以降低肺栓塞的发生。  相似文献
4.
A Simple Tool to Identify Asian Women at Increased Risk of Osteoporosis   总被引:38,自引:10,他引:28  
Patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a high risk of future fractures, and should be actively considered for treatment to reduce their risk. However, BMD measurements are not widely available in some communities, because of cost and lack of equipment. Simple questionnaires have been designed to help target high-risk women for BMD measurements, thereby avoiding the cost of measuring women at low risk. However, such tools have previously focused on evaluation of non-Asian women. We collected information about numerous risk factors from postmenopausal Asian women in eight countries in Asia using questionnaires, and evaluated the ability of these risk factors to identify women with osteoporosis as defined by femoral neck BMD T-scores < or =-2.5. Multiple variable regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool based on only age and body weight. This risk index had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 45%, with an area under the curve of 0.79. Previously published risk indices based on larger numbers of variables performed similarly well in this Asian population. Large differences in risk were identified using our index to create three categories: 61% of the high-risk women had osteoporosis, compared with only 15% and 3% of the intermediate- and low-risk women, respectively. The low-risk group represented 40% of all women, for whom BMD measurements are probably not needed unless important risk factors, such as prior nonviolent fracture or corticosteroid use, are present. An existing population-based sample of postmenopausal Japanese women was used to validate our index. In this sample of Japanese women the sensitivity was 98% and specificity was 29%; the low-risk category, for whom BMD is probably unnecessary, represented 25% of all women. We conclude that our index performed well for classifying the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal Asian women and applying it would result in more prudent use of BMD technology.  相似文献
5.
As of December 31, 2004, more than 23,000 pancreas transplant had been reported to the IPTR, >17,000 in the US and almost 6000 from outside the US. An analysis of US pancreas transplants performed between 1988 and 2003 showed a progressive improvement in outcome, with pancreas transplant graft survival rates (GSRs) going from 75% at 1 yr for 1988/1989 to 85% for 2002/2003 simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) cases, from 55 to 78% for pancreas after kidney (PAK) cases, and from 45 to 77% for pancreas transplants alone (PTA) cases. The improvements were due both to decreases in technical failure (TF) rates (from 12 to 6% in SPK, 13-8% in PAK, and 24-7% in PTA) and immunological failure rates (going from 7 to 2% for SPK, from 28 to 7% for PAK, and from 38 to 8% for PTA cases). These results are even more impressive under the aspect that during the same time the rate of potential risk factors increased and the duct management techniques changed from bladder to enteric drainage. The improvement in outcome allowed also an increase in the number of solitary pancreas transplants from initially 12% to now 35%. Contemporary primary deceased donor pancreas transplant outcomes were calculated separately for 2000-2004 US and non-US cases. The US patient survival rates at 1 yr were >95% in each recipient category, with 1 yr primary pancreas GSRs of 85% for SPK, 78% for PAK, and 76% for PTA (p < 0.0001). The immunological graft failure rates for 2000-2004 technically successful (TS) SPK, PAK, and PTA cases were 2, 8, and 10% at 1 yr (p = 0.0001). In the majority of all transplants ED was used for duct management (81% of SPK, 67% of PAK, and 56% for PTA cases). Of the ED transplants, venous drainage via the portal system was used for 20% of SPK, 23% of PAK, and 35% of PTA cases. Duct management technique did not have a significant impact on overall pancreas graft function in the univariate or the multivariate model. The outcomes of ED and BD transplants are comparable with 85 vs. 87% at 1 yr for SPK, 77 vs. 80% for PAK, and 72 vs. 79% for PTA. The overall TF rate was higher in ED pancreas transplants but this difference did reach significance only in SPK. In addition, in technically successful PTA the immunological graft loss rate was higher in ED vs. BD transplants (15 vs. 5% at 1 yr). The different vascular management techniques did not seem to have an impact on the outcome of the pancreas transplants. Kidney GSRs were not significantly different for ED vs. BD SPK cases, 93 and 91% at 1 yr (p = 0.24). The overall conversion rate from BD to ED was 9% at 1 yr and 17% at 3 yr post-transplant. The most influential factor for patient survival in SPK and PAK in the multivariate and the univariate models was the status of the transplanted organ. The hazard ratio (HR) for a failed kidney was 14.99 in SPK and 9.17 in PAK (p = 0.0001). The HR for a failed pancreas graft was 3.51 in SPK and 4.17 for PAK (p = 0.0001). In PTA a failed pancreas graft did not have a direct impact on patient survival. SPK and PAK patients older than 44 yr at the time of transplants also showed an increased mortality risk, but at the same time the risk of immunological graft loss was significantly decreased for those patients. TAC&MMF remained the dominant maintenance immunosuppressant for 2000-2004 US cases (approximately two-third) in all three categories and with this regime 1-year GSRs were > or =80% in all three recipient categories. The results were comparable (> or =83% 1-year GSR) for patients (approximately 10%) treated with Sirolimus (SIR) under various protocols. In regard to non-US pancreas transplants, even for 2000-2004 the overwhelming majority continued to be in the SPK category (91%), with 1-year patient, kidney and pancreas survival rates of 94, 92, and 87%. Solitary transplants are still very rarely done outside the US. Non-US PAK GSR at 1 yr was 85%, non-US PTA GSR at 1 yr was 76%. In summary, with the new advancements in immunosuppression and changes in surgical techniques the outcomes in patient survival and pancreas transplant graft function continue to improve even with an increasing proportion of high risk patients in all three categories.  相似文献
6.
急性胆囊炎腹腔镜胆囊切除术量化手术指征探讨   总被引:34,自引:1,他引:33  
目的 :探讨并建立一个急性胆囊炎行腹腔镜胆囊切除术 (LC)手术失败的预测模式 ,并确立量化的手术指征。方法 :回顾分析我院 2 2 8例急性胆囊炎LC的诊治经验。结果 :(1)右上腹手术史或发作史 ,临床症状 ,B超表现 ,技术因素在统计学上和LC失败率有相关性 (P <0 0 5 ) ;(2 )急性胆囊炎行LC失败预测方程式 =0 0 5 2 + 0 12 1右上腹部手术史赋值 + 0 0 6 4临床症状赋值 + 0 0 75胆囊B超表现赋值 + 0 182技术因素赋值 (P <0 0 1)。结论 :危险因素术前评分系统PRFSS大于等于 6分组应首选开腹手术。PRFSS是简单 ,实用 ,可行的评分系统。  相似文献
7.
重症急性胰腺炎合并深部真菌感染易感因素剖析   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
分析重症急性腺炎病人并发深部真菌感染的主要易感因素,并探讨其预防措施。方法:回顾性分析1996年1月~1999年12月我院外科收治的119例重症急性胰腺炎病例。结果:重症急性胰腺炎病人并发真菌感染以念珠菌为主:病情严重程度、肠外营养和肠功能障碍≥5天对并发真菌感染有重要影响;预防用药可显著降低ICU组真菌感染的发生率。结论:在本文比较的易感因素中,病人的病情严重程度、肠外营养、肠功能障碍≥5天等易感因素对重症急性胰腺炎合并真菌感染有显著影响。  相似文献
8.
An Update on the Diagnosis and Assessment of Osteoporosis with Densitometry   总被引:30,自引:9,他引:21  
In 1994 the WHO proposed guidelines for the diagnosis of osteoporosis based on measurement of bone mineral density. They have been widely used for epidemiological studies, clinical research and for treatment strategies. Despite the widespread acceptance of the diagnostic criteria, several problems remain with their use. Uncertainties concern the optimal site for assessment, thresholds for men and diagnostic inaccuracies at different sites. In addition, the development of many new technologies to assess the amount or quality of bone poses problems in placing these new tools within a diagnostic and assessment setting. This review considers the recent literature that has highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of diagnostic thresholds and their use in the assessment of fracture risk, and makes recommendations for actions to resolve these difficulties.  相似文献
9.
重型颅脑损伤后上消化道出血的风险因素分析   总被引:30,自引:0,他引:30  
目的:探讨重颅脑损伤后上消化道出血的风险因素。方法 回顾性分析了153例重型颅脑损伤的临床。结果 上消化道出血49例。GCS评分高低,去脑强直,中枢性高热,血糖浓度与上消化道出血显著相关,属于因素。结论在重型颅脑损伤的监护治疗中,应警惕上消化道出血的可能性,尤其是对具有出发因风险的病人。  相似文献
10.
Guan ZP  Lü HS  Chen YZ  Song YN  Qin XL  Jiang J 《中华外科杂志》2005,43(20):1317-1320
目的 分析影响人工关节置换术后下肢深静脉血栓形成(DVT)的临床风险因素。方法对2004年4月至8月95例128个人工髋、膝关节置换术术后DVT发生情况进行分析。其中男性27例,女性68例,平均年龄60岁(23~78岁)。人工髋关节置换术(THA)43例48髋,人工膝关节置换术(TKA)52例80膝。术前及术后7~10d均用彩色多普勒检查双下肢深静脉血流通畅情况及DVT的发生。对19项临床因素与人工关节置换术后DVT形成的相关性进行了分析。结果术后发生DVT的患者有45人,DVT发生率为47.4%(45/95),其中无症状DVT患者占57.8%(26/45)。经logistic多因素回归分析,与DVT相关的因素有4个,其中女性、肥胖及骨水泥的使用使术后发生DVT的风险分别增加到10.008、3.094、8.887倍(P〈0.05);类风湿关节炎的诊断使术后发生DVT的可能性减少到0.194倍(P〈0.05)。结论女性、肥胖及骨水泥的使用是人工关节术后发生DVT的危险因素,而类风湿关节炎(RA)则是减少术后发生DVT的保护因素;关节置换术后无症状DVT的大量存在,提示我们术后最好常规行双下肢彩色多普勒或造影检查,一旦有DVT发生,及时治疗,防止发生致命性肺栓塞。  相似文献
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