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Introduction

This article seeks to identify where delays occur along the adult HIV care cascade (“the cascade”), to improve understanding of what constitutes “delay” at each stage of the cascade and how this can be measured across a range of settings and to inform service delivery efforts. Current metrics are reviewed, measures informed by global guidelines are suggested and areas for further clarification are underscored.

Discussion

Questions remain on how best to evaluate late entry into each stage of the cascade. The delayed uptake of HIV testing may be more consistently measured once rapid CD4 testing is administered at the time of HIV testing. For late enrolment, preliminary research has begun to determine how different time intervals for linking to HIV care affect individual health. Regarding treatment, since 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS recommend treatment initiation when CD4 <500 cells/mm3; these guidelines provide a useful albeit evolving threshold to define late treatment initiation. Finally, WHO guidelines for high-, low- and middle-income countries also could be used to standardize measures for achieving viral suppression.

Conclusions

There is no “one size fits all” model as the provision of services may differ based on a range of factors. Nonetheless, measures informed by global guidelines are needed to more consistently evaluate the scope of and factors associated with delays to each stage of the cascade. Doing so will help identify how practitioners can best deliver services and facilitate access to and continued engagement in care.  相似文献   
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汪翔  杨少岩  张蒙  何安邦  吴松 《骨科》2015,6(4):215-219
骨巨细胞瘤( giant cell tumor of bone,GCTB)通常被认为是一种交界性骨肿瘤,具体发病机制不详且易复发,目前除了手术暂无其他有效的治疗方案。但随着快速减法杂交( rapid subtractive hybridization,RaSH)和实时定量聚合酶链式反应( quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, qRT-PCR)等技术在GCTB研究领域的运用,基因突变、基因表达谱、基因转染及信号通路等基因组学事件在GCTB中得到了进一步的探索。这些研究正逐渐揭示了GCTB的发病机制,同时也改进了这种骨肿瘤的早期诊断及治疗方案。本文旨在总结GCTB基因组学研究现状,以期能发现早期特异性诊断指标,并在此基础上改进治疗方案及减少该病的术后复发率。  相似文献   
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Introduction

Efforts to increase awareness of HIV status have led to growing interest in community-based models of HIV testing. Maximizing the benefits of such programmes requires timely linkage to care and treatment. Thus, an understanding of linkage and its potential barriers is imperative for scale-up.

Methods

This study was conducted in rural South Africa. HIV-positive clients (n=492) identified through home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) were followed up to assess linkage to care, defined as obtaining a CD4 count. Among 359 eligible clients, we calculated the proportion that linked to care within three months. For 226 clients with available data, we calculated the median CD4. To determine factors associated with the rate of linkage, Cox regression was performed on a subsample of 196 clients with additional data on socio-demographic factors and personal characteristics.

Results

We found that 62.1% (95% CI: 55.7 to 68.5%) of clients from the primary sample (n=359) linked to care within three months of HBHCT. Among those who linked, the median CD4 count was 341 cells/mm3 (interquartile range [IQR] 224 to 542 cells/mm3). In the subsample of 196 clients, factors predictive of increased linkage included the following: believing that drugs/supplies were available at the health facility (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.78; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.96); experiencing three or more depression symptoms (aHR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.53); being a caregiver for four or more people (aHR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.07 to 3.47); and knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS (aHR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.49). Factors predictive of decreased linkage included the following: younger age – 15 to 24 years (aHR 0.50; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.91); living with two or more adults (aHR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.77); not believing or being unsure about the test results (aHR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.77); difficulty finding time to seek health care (aHR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.67); believing that antiretroviral treatment can make you sick (aHR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.89); and drinking alcohol (aHR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.80).

Conclusions

The findings highlight barriers to linkage following an increasingly popular model of HIV testing. Further, they draw attention to ways in which practical interventions and health education strategies could be used to improve linkage to care.  相似文献   
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探讨小儿鼾症患者行扁桃体和(或)腺样体手术对与心血管疾病密切相关的血浆生物标志物的影响。选取单纯非肥胖型小儿鼾症患者20例,进行术前和术后6个月血浆超敏 C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、白介素6(IL-6)、脂联素和胎球蛋白 A 的水平的测定,结果显示术后6个月的血浆 hs-CRP、TNF-α、IL-6、脂联素的水平均明显低于相应的术前水平(P <0.001),胎球蛋白 A 的水平均明显高于相应的术前水平(P <0.001)。小儿鼾症患者进行扁桃体和(或)腺样体切除术有助于降低其并发心血管疾病的风险。  相似文献   
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目的:研究TLR7在胰腺癌BxPC-3细胞中表达,并探讨TLR7激动剂激活TLR7后细胞因子白介素15( IL-15)的表达。方法通过 Western blot 和 Real-time PCR 分析TLR7在细胞内的表达水平;BxPC-3细胞经过不同时间点Gardiquimod(3μg/ml)的处理后,Real-time PCR 分析 TLR7激活后 IL-15 mRNA 水平表达变化;Western blot 分析Gardiquimod刺激细胞后,磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶-蛋白质丝氨酸苏氨酸激酶( PI3K-AKT)信号通路的变化。结果 Western blot和 Real-time PCR结果显示:与外周血单核细胞( PBMC)相比, TLR7在 BxPC-3中弱表达;Real-time PCR分析显示:Gardiquimod处理细胞后能刺激细胞中IL-15的表达;TLR7激动剂能够激活 PI3K-AKT信号通路。结论 Gardiquimod激活TLR7后能够上调 IL-15的表达,并且其激活与 PI3K-AKT信号途径相关。  相似文献   
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