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1.
Action of Estradiol on Epiphyseal Growth Plate Chondrocytes   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Estrogen plays an important role in the human growth plate by accelerating growth and promoting epiphyseal fusion in both sexes. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the role of 17-estradiol (E2) on cell proliferation and viability, type X collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix calcification in primary cultures of resting, proliferating, and prehypertrophic chondrocytes derived from explants of the bovine fetal epiphyseal growth plate. Growth plate chondrocytes were isolated and separated into maturationally distinct subpopulations, which were cultured for 7–21 days to high density in either (1) serum-free medium, (2) 1 nM thyroid hormone (T3), (3) E2 concentrations ranging from 10–13 M to 10–7 M, or (4) a combination of T3 and E2. To compare E2 effects in both sexes, chondrocytes were harvested from 8 fetuses of both sexes. After hormone treatment, cell cultures were analyzed for cell number and viability, collagen type X, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and matrix calcification. Neither DNA content nor cell viability were affected by the duration or type of hormone treatment. By itself, E2 stimulated maturation of all subpopulations only in pharmacologic doses (10–7 M). Physiologic E2 concentrations were no different than negative controls treated with ITS (insulin, transferrin, and selenite). Regardless of E2 concentrations, the addition of E2 to 1 nM T3 did not appreciably affect the response to T3 alone, which stimulates maturation of the phenotype. All effects were comparable in both male and female chondrocytes, in all cell subpopulations (maturation stages) and fetuses of varying gestational age. These findings indicate that at physiologic concentrations, the effects of E2 on fetal bovine growth plate chondrocyte appear to be indirect and independent of T3, suggesting that, in vivo, E2 acts in concert with other factors or hormones to induce fusion of the growth plate.  相似文献
2.
兔髂骨骺板软骨细胞体外构建骺板样软骨组织   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
目的 利用组织工程学技术体外构建骺板样软骨组织。方法 从 4~ 5周龄兔髂骨骺板软骨处获取软骨细胞 ,在离心管内轻微离心后 ,体外培养。行组织学观察。结果 培养至第 7天时 ,细胞呈现定向分化 ,形态与体内骺板软骨细胞相类似 :肥大软骨细胞体积较大、呈圆形或椭圆形 ;增殖、成熟软骨细胞体积小 ,呈圆形或扁圆形 ;细胞周围充满大量的细胞外基质。这些不同分化阶段的细胞形成了分化区带 ,肥大软骨细胞位于上侧 ,增殖、成熟细胞位于中间 ,其次是散在静止软骨细胞。培养第 14天 ,分化区带更加明显 ,增殖、成熟细胞和肥大软骨细胞呈现纵向定向排列。培养第 2 1天 ,组织表面出现膜样的结构。结论 体外构建的骺板样软骨组织与天然骺板的组织学形态极为相似。从髂骨处骺板处获取肥大软骨细胞进行体外构建骺板软骨材料 ,更具有临床实用性  相似文献
3.
Summary The effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (2.3×10-12-1.4×10-6 [M]) on alkaline phosphatase, collagen, and cell proliferation were examined in primary cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes prepared from the distal epiphyseal growth plate of the tibias of 12-day chick embryos. 1,25(OH)2D3 showed time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the alkaline phosphatase and collagen levels. The inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity became detectable at 2×10-11 [M] and reached 10% of control at 10-7 [M]. The concentration of 1,25(OH)2D3 giving a 50% inhibition of the enzyme level was approximately 3×10-10 [M]. Of the two extracellular collagen pools, a cell-associated matrix pool showed a more dramatic decrease (to 10% of control) than a culture medium pool (to 50% of control) at increased 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations. The degree of inhibition was different for each type of chondrocyte-specific collagen (types II, IX, X, and XI). Types II and IX were inhibited in a parallel manner to only 60–80% of control. On the other hand, types X and XI were more greatly reduced up to 10% of control, and their dose-dependent inhibitory curves were similar to that of alkaline phosphatase. On cell proliferation, 1,25(OH)2D3 had a biphasic effect: stimulation at 10-10–10-8 [M] and inhibition at higher levels. The results revealed the significant involvement of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the metabolism of two probable calcification-related products, alkaline phosphatase and type X collagen.  相似文献
4.
Calcifying cartilages undergo endochondral ossification, a process in which cartilage is replaced by bone. These tissues contain chondrocytes that proliferate, leading, to differentiation and hypertrophy. Recent histological and biochemical studies suggest that hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo apoptosis. We investigated the process of this cell death to determine when fragmentation of DNA, a hallmark of apoptosis, occurs during cellular commitment to hypertrophy, and to test the hypothesis that the chondrocytes are intrinsically programmed to undergo apoptosis. End-labeling of fragmented DNA of rat proximal tibiae revealed that a majority of hypertrophic cells bore fragmented DNA, indicating that apoptosis was in progress in this zone. In pelleted chondrocyte cultures isolated from, rat rib growth plates and employed in an in vitro model of a growth plate, hypertrophic cells were also positive for end-labeling. Gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from the chondrocyte cultures at 1–3 weeks yielded the ladder formation characteristic of apoptosis. We conclude that the chondrocytes in the growth plate are programmed to self-annihilate by apoptosis and that the apoptotic process is closely associated with the commitment to hypertrophy.  相似文献
5.
The distribution and expression of type X collagen, a calcium-binding collagen, which is a marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes and thought to be involved in cartilage calcification, was examined in situ in nondegenerate (grade I or II) human discs taken at autopsy over a wide age range (fetal–>80 years) and also in scoliotic discs removed at surgery. In the fetal vertebral column, type X collagen was strongly expressed in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of the endplate, but was not seen in other areas. In the cartilaginous endplate of adults, it was found over the whole age range examined, with intensity increasing with age. In the disc matrix itself, type X collagen was demonstrated around individual cells from all individuals older than 50 years, but not in any fetal or autopsy disc from individuals younger than 40 years. In scoliotic discs, however, focal type X collagen expression was seen in 3/8 patients younger than 40 years including one 12-year-old. No type X collagen was found in the outer annulus in any autopsy or scoliotic disc, supporting the idea that cells of the outer annulus are phenotypically distinct from cells of the inner annulus and the nucleus. Our results demonstrate for the first time that type X collagen is a possible gene product of the intervertebral disc cells and a potential biochemical component of the disc matrix. They indicate that with age or in scoliosis, some cells from the inner annulus or nucleus of the disc differentiate to the hypertrophic chondrocyte phenotype. This might be the initiating event for the abnormal calcification described in aged and scoliotic discs in other studies. Received: 13 February 1997 / Accepted: 23 January 1998  相似文献
6.
We have used a rabbit leg-lengthening model for detailed studies of the histology of distraction osteogenesis. Some unusual features of the endochondral ossification that occurs during the rapid transition of cartilage to bone in the regenerate were observed. Histological staining techniques together with immunohistochemistry and nonradioactive in situ mRNA hybridization for cartilage and bone-related molecules have been used to document the presence of an overlapping cartilage-bone phenotype in cells of the cartilage-bone transitional region. In those particular areas, some chondrocytes appeared to be directly transformed into newly formed bone trabeculae which are surrounded by bone matrix. Acid phosphatases were found within the cartilage matrix in some of the cartilage/bone transitional regions and type I collagen mRNA and type II collagen protein were found together in some of the marginal hypertrophic chondrocytes. This study indicates an unusual role of chondrocytes in the process of ossification at a distraction rate of 1.3 mm/day in the rabbit. Further direct evidence is required to prove the hypothesis that the hypertrophic chondrocytes may transdifferentiate into bone cells in this model. Received: 13 March 1997 / Accepted: 22 September 1998  相似文献
7.
8.
Scoliosis progression in skeletally immature patients depends on remaining growth. Relationships between vertebral growth plate histomorphometry, growth rates, and mechanical stresses have been reported in several animal studies. Hypertrophic zone heights and chondrocyte heights have been used to assess treatments that aim to modulate growth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether human vertebral physeal hypertrophic zone and cell heights differed between two groups: Severe scoliosis and autopsy controls. Severity was defined at time of surgical planning by curve magnitude and curve stiffness. Physeal samples were obtained from the convex side apex, and from the concave side when feasible. Histologic sections were prepared, and digital images were used to measure hypertrophic zone height, cell height, and cell width. Thirteen spinal deformity patients were included, mean curve magnitude 67° (±23). Etiologies were juvenile and adolescent idiopathic, congenital, neurofibromatosis, neuromuscular, and Marfan syndrome. Five age‐matched autopsy specimens without scoliosis served as controls. Results were presented by etiology, then all convex scoliosis specimens were combined and compared to controls. Zone heights for scoliosis, convex side, and controls were 152 µm (±34) and 180 µm (±42) (p = 0.21), cell heights 8.5 µm (±1.1) and 12.8 µm (±1.2) (p < 0.0005), and cell widths 14.9 µm (±1.5) and 15.0 µm (±2.5), respectively. Human values were compared to published animal models and to a quantitative theory of a stress ̶ growth curve. This quantification of vertebral physeal structures in scoliosis may be expected to help assess theories of progression and potential treatments using growth modulation. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:2450–2459, 2018.
  相似文献
9.
We have recently shown that a 150‐bp Col10a1 distal promoter (?4296 to ?4147 bp) is sufficient to direct hypertrophic chondrocyte‐specific reporter (LacZ) expression in vivo. More recently, through detailed sequence analysis we identified two putative tandem‐repeat Runx2 binding sites within the 3′‐end of this 150‐bp region (TGTGGG‐TGTGGC, ?4187 to ?4176 bp). Candidate electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transfection studies demonstrate that these putative Runx2 sites bind Runx2 and mediate upregulated Col10a1/reporter activity in vitro. Transgenic studies using the 5′‐sequence without Runx2 sites were not able to drive the cell‐specific LacZ reporter activity, suggesting the in vivo requirement of the Runx2 sites located in the 3′‐end in mediating Col10a1/reporter expression. Indeed, mutating the Runx2 sites in the context of the 150‐bp promoter abolishes its capacity to drive hypertrophic chondrocyte‐specific reporter expression in transgenic mice. We have also generated multiple transgenic mouse lines using only the 3′‐sequence containing the Runx2 sites to drive the LacZ gene. Interestingly, no hypertrophic chondrocyte‐specific blue staining was observed in these transgenic mice. Together, our data support that Runx2 directly interacts with murine Col10a1 cis‐enhancer. This interaction is required but not sufficient for cell‐specific Col10a1 promoter activity in vivo. Additional cooperative/repressive elements within the 5′‐ or 3′‐sequences of this 150‐bp promoter are needed to work with Runx2 together to mediate cell‐specific Col10a1 expression. Further delineation of these elements/factors has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for multiple skeletal disorders, including osteoarthritis, that show abnormal Col10a1 expression and altered chondrocyte maturation. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research  相似文献
10.
王欢博  贺婷  郑超  卢玮光  范静  颉强  杨柳 《骨科》2021,12(6):485-492
目的 探究Indian Hedgehog(IHH)信号通路对软骨内成骨过程中软骨细胞成熟以及转分化的影响。方法 取10日龄野生型小鼠的胫骨组织,采用原位杂交和免疫组织化学染色检测生长板区域IHH信号通路相关分子IhhPtch1Gli1的表达水平。构建肥大软骨细胞特异性Ihh基因敲除小鼠(Col10a1Cre/+; Ihhnull/C),并采用影像学检查和阿利新蓝染色评估该小鼠的骨骼发育状况。构建肥大软骨细胞IHH信号通路持续激活小鼠(Col10a1Cre/+; R26SmoM2/M2Col10a1Cre/+; Ptch1LacZ/C),采用HE染色、原位杂交和TUNEL染色分别对受精15.5天胎鼠胫骨组织形态结构、Ihh(肥大软骨细胞分子标志物)和Col1a1(成骨细胞分子标志物)以及肥大软骨细胞凋亡水平进行检测;另外应用HE染色对10日龄小鼠的胫骨组织进行组织学分析。结果 肥大软骨细胞合成分泌IHH,但不表达Ptch1Gli1。抑制肥大软骨细胞合成IHH蛋白会导致出生后小鼠出现侏儒症;X线检查结果显示小鼠出现严重的骨骼发育不良,包括胸廓狭小、球形头骨以及椎骨发育异常等表现。持续启动IHH信号通路时,胚胎早期软骨细胞成熟分化过程虽未见异常,但是出生后小鼠的骨小梁、骨内膜以及皮质骨等结构均出现一定的异常表现。结论 IHH信号通路虽然不参与肥大软骨细胞的终末分化过程,但在软骨细胞转分化的过程中起到了重要的调控作用。  相似文献
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