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1.
3D打印医学   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
3D打印技术的个性化、精准化、远程化等优点,特别适合于医学领域的应用。本文介绍了3D打印技术的发展态势、技术特征,以及在医学领域的应用,包括体外医学模型、定制化医疗器械、人工器官和组织等;同时,也对3D打印技术在医学领域中的研究瓶颈和对策进行了阐述。  相似文献
2.
Song SJ  Choi J  Park YD  Lee JJ  Hong SY  Sun K 《Artificial organs》2010,34(11):1044-1048
Bioprinting is an emerging technology for constructing tissue or bioartificial organs with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. It provides high-precision spatial shape forming ability on a larger scale than conventional tissue engineering methods, and simultaneous multiple components composition ability. Bioprinting utilizes a computer-controlled 3D printer mechanism for 3D biological structure construction. To implement minimal pattern width in a hydrogel-based bioprinting system, a study on printing characteristics was performed by varying printer control parameters. The experimental results showed that printing pattern width depends on associated printer control parameters such as printing flow rate, nozzle diameter, and nozzle velocity. The system under development showed acceptable feasibility of potential use for accurate printing pattern implementation in tissue engineering applications and is another example of novel techniques for regenerative medicine based on computer-aided biofabrication system.  相似文献
3.
Industry 4.0 offers new development opportunities for surgeons. Computer-aided design and 3 D printing allow for the creation of prototypes and functional end products. Until now, it was difficult for new devices to get to the manufacturing phase. Nowadays, the main limitations are our creativity, available spaces to test our creations and obtaining financing.  相似文献
4.

Background

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is a common neonatal condition treated with open or laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. 3D-printed organs offer realistic simulations to practice surgical techniques. The purpose of this study was to validate a 3D HPS stomach model and assess model reliability and surgical realism.

Methods

Medical students, general surgery residents, and adult and pediatric general surgeons were recruited from a single center. Participants were videotaped three times performing a laparoscopic pyloromyotomy using box trainers and 3D-printed stomachs. Attempts were graded independently by three reviewers using GOALS and Task Specific Assessments (TSA). Participants were surveyed using the Index of Agreement of Assertions on Model Accuracy (IAAMA).

Results

Participants reported their experience levels as novice (22%), inexperienced (26%), intermediate (19%), and experienced (33%). Interrater reliability was similar for overall average GOALS and TSA scores. There was a significant improvement in GOALS (p < 0.0001) and TSA scores (p = 0.03) between attempts and overall. Participants felt the model accurately simulated a laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (82%) and would be a useful tool for beginners (100%).

Conclusion

A 3D-printed stomach model for simulated laparoscopic pyloromyotomy is a useful training tool for learners to improve laparoscopic skills. The GOALS and TSA provide reliable technical skills assessments.

Level of Evidence

II.  相似文献
5.

Background

Despite advances in the Fontan procedure, there is an unmet clinical need for patient-specific graft designs that are optimized for variations in patient anatomy. The objective of this study is to design and produce patient-specific Fontan geometries, with the goal of improving hepatic flow distribution (HFD) and reducing power loss (Ploss), and manufacturing these designs by electrospinning.

Methods

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data from patients who previously underwent a Fontan procedure (n = 2) was used to create 3-dimensional models of their native Fontan geometry using standard image segmentation and geometry reconstruction software. For each patient, alternative designs were explored in silico, including tube-shaped and bifurcated conduits, and their performance in terms of Ploss and HFD probed by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The best-performing options were then fabricated using electrospinning.

Results

CFD simulations showed that the bifurcated conduit improved HFD between the left and right pulmonary arteries, whereas both types of conduits reduced Ploss. In vitro testing with a flow-loop chamber supported the CFD results. The proposed designs were then successfully electrospun into tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

Conclusions

Our unique virtual cardiac surgery approach has the potential to improve the quality of surgery by manufacturing patient-specific designs before surgery, that are also optimized with balanced HFD and minimal Ploss, based on refinement of commercially available options for image segmentation, computer-aided design, and flow simulations.  相似文献
6.

Introduction

Deep facial burns leave conspicuous scar to the patients and affect their quality of life. Transparent facemask has been adopted for the prevention and treatment of facial hypertrophic scars for decades. Recently, with the advancement of 3D printing, the transparent facemask could facilitate the fitting of the facial contour. However, the effectiveness of the device and its biomechanical characteristics on pressure management of hypertrophic scar would need more objective evaluation.

Method

A biomechanical model of the transparent 3D-printed facemask was established through finite element analysis. Ten patients with extensive deep facial burns within 6 months were recruited for clinical study using 3D-printed facemask designed according to biomechanical model, and the interface pressure was measured on each patient. The patients in the treatment group (n = 5) was provided with the 3D-printed transparent face mask soon after initial scar assessment, while the delayed treatment group (n = 5) began the treatment one month after the initial scar assessment. The scar assessment was performed one month post intervention for both groups.

Results

The biomechanical modeling showed that the 3D, computer-generated facemask resulted in unbalanced pressure if design modifications were not incorporated to address these issues. The interface pressure between the facemask and patient’s face was optimized through individualized design adjustments and the addition of silicone lining. After optimization of pressure through additional lining, the mean thickness and hardness of the scars of all 10 patients were decreased significantly after 1-month of intervention. In the delayed treatment group, the mean thickness of the scars was increased within the month without intervention, but it was also decreased after intervention.

Conclusion

Facemask design and the silicone lining are important to ensure adequate compression pressure of 3D-printed transparent facemask. The intervention using the 3D-printed facemask appeared to show its efficacy to control the thickness and hardness of the facial hypertrophic scars.  相似文献
7.

Study Design

A male patient with partial hand amputation of his nondominant hand, with only stumps of the proximal phalanx of the first and fifth finger, was evaluated. The performance of using two alternative 3D printed silicone-embedded personalized prostheses was evaluated using the quantitative Jebsen Hand Function Test.

Introduction

Custom design and fabrication of 3D printed prostheses appears to be a good technique for improving the clinical treatment of patients with partial hand amputations. Despite its importance the literature shows an absence of studies reporting on quantitative functional evaluations of 3D printed hand prostheses.

Purpose of the Study

We aim at producing the first quantitative assessment of the impact of using 3D printed silicone-embedded prostheses that can be fabricated and customized within the clinical environment.

Methods

Alginate molds and computed tomographic scans were taken from the patient's hand. Each candidate prosthesis was modeled in Computer Aided Design software and then fabricated using a combination of 3D printed parts and silicone-embedded components.

Discussion

Incorporating the patient’s feedback during the design loop was very important for obtaining a good aid on his work activities. Although the explored patient-centered design process still requires a multidisciplinary team, functional benefits are large.

Conclusion(s)

Quantitative data demonstrates better hand performance when using 3D printed silicone-embedded prosthesis vs not using any aid. The patient accomplished complex tasks such as driving a nail and opening plastic bags. This was impossible without the aid of produced prosthesis.  相似文献
8.
The applications of Additive Manufacturing (AM) have increased extensively in the area of orthopaedics. The AM applications are for making anatomic models, surgical instruments & tool design, splints, implants and prosthesis. A brief review of various research articles shows that patient-specific orthopaedic procedures provide multiple applications areas and provide directions for future developments. The purpose of this paper is to identify the best possible usage of additive manufacturing applications in orthopaedics field. It also presents the steps used to prepare a 3D printed model by using this technology and details applications in the field of orthopaedics. AM gives a flexible solution in orthopaedics area, where customised implants can be formed as per the required shape and size and can help substitution with customised products. A 3D model created by this technology gain an accurate perception of patient's anatomy which is used to perform mock surgeries and is helpful for highly complex surgical pathologies. It makes surgeon's job accessible and increases the success rate of the operation. AM provides a perfect fit implant for the specific patient by unlimited geometric freedom. Various scanning technologies capture the status of bone defects, and printing of the model is done with the help of this technology. It gives an exact generation of a physical model which is also helpful for medical education, surgical planning and training. This technology can help to solve present-day challenges as data of every patient is different from another.  相似文献
9.

Background

Computerised Tomography (CT) scans are conventionally employed to assess the glenoid morphology prior to total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). This study explores the role of three-dimensional (3D) models for assessing glenoid morphology.

Methods

CT scans of 32 patients scheduled for TSA were reconstructed to scapular models using customised software and a desktop 3D printer. The size and aspect ratios were maintained. Glenoid version, glenoid maximum height and width, and the maximum acromion antero-posterior (AP) length were compared between the models and CT scans.

Results

The models were an accurate qualitative reflection of scapular anatomy. The average retroversion in 3D models was 8.19°±30.8° compared to 10.26°±42.5° in scan images. The mean difference was 2.07°±24.6° (p=0.408). However, the mean absolute error was 5.02°±12.3°. The mean difference of the glenoid maximum width and the acromion maximum AP length was 0.22±3.33mm (p=0.862) and 0.32±14.12mm (p=0.213) respectively. However, the mean difference was significant for the glenoid maximum height measuring 3.67±12.04mm with p=0.004. The correlation between the examiners was high for all parameters, with intraclass correlation ranging between 0.94 and 0.99.

Conclusion

3D printing technology promises to be a useful tool for preoperative planning with accurate reproduction of transverse plane anatomy. 3D prints represent superior definition of reconstructed anatomical measures such as glenoid height as compared to conventional CT Scans.  相似文献
10.

Purpose

Three dimensional (3D) printing, also called ‘rapid prototyping’ and ‘additive manufacturing’ is considered as a “second industrial revolution.” With this rapidly emerging technology, CT or MR images are used for the creation of graspable objects from 3D reconstituted images. Patient-specific anatomical models can be, therefore, manufactured efficiently. These can enhance surgeon's understanding of their patients' patho-anatomy and also help in precise preoperative planning. The 3D printed patient-specific guides can also help in achieving accurate bony cuts, precise implant placement, and nice surgical results. Customized implants, casts, orthoses and prosthetics can be created to match an individual patient's anatomy. The 3D printing of individualized artificial cartilage scaffolds and 3D bioprinting are some other areas of growing interest. We aim to study the publication trends in 3D printing as applied to the field of orthopaedics.

Materials and methods

A literature search was performed to extract all papers related to 3D printing applications in orthopaedics and allied sciences on the Pubmed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. Suitable keywords and boolean operators (“3D Printing” OR “3-dimensional printing” OR “3D printed” OR “additive manufacturing” OR “rapid prototyping”) AND (‘‘Orthopaedics” OR “Orthopaedics’’) were used, in May 2018. Search was attempted in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Database of Abstracts of Review of Effectiveness (DARE) databases, using keywords 3d printing orthopaedics. A similar search was repeated in pubmed and SCOPUS to get more specific papers.No limits were set on the period or evidence level, as 3D printing in orthopaedics is relatively new and evidence available is usually limited to low-level studies. Trends in a publication on these topics were analyzed, focussing on publications, type of research (basic science or clinical), type of publication, authors, institution, and country. Some citations received by these papers were also analyzed in SCOPUS and Web of Science. MS Excel (2008 - Mac version) and VOS Viewer1.6.8 (2018- Mac version) software were used to analyze the search results and for citation mapping respectively. We also identified top 10 most cited articles in the field.

Results

An increasing trend in publications in 3D printing-related work in orthopedic surgery and related fields was observed in the recent past. A search on Pubmed using the above strategy revealed 389 documents. A similar search revealed 653 documents on SCOPUS, many (314) of which were from an engineering background and only 271 were related to medicine. No papers were found in the Cochrane database. Search on TRIP database revealed 195 papers. A similar search revealed 237 papers on orthopedic applications on Pubmed and 269 documents on SCOPUS, whereas a search on Web of Science revealed only 23 papers. Publication trends were then analyzed on data derived from SCOPUS database. Overall, most papers were published from China, followed by United States, United Kingdom, and India.

Conclusion

There has been an upsurge of interest in 3D printing in orthopedic surgery, as is evident by an increasing trend in research and publications in this area in the recent years. Presently, 3D printing is in a primitive stage in the field of orthopedic surgery as our knowledge is still insufficient, and costs and learning curve are somewhat high. However, looking at latest publication trends, we are enthusiastic that it holds the key to future in orthopaedics and trauma cases.  相似文献
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