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1.
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer is technically feasible, but it is not widely accepted because it has not been evaluated from the standpoint of oncologic outcome. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study of a large series of patients in Japan to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (EGC). METHODS: The study group comprised 1294 patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy during the period April 1994 through December 2003 in 16 participating surgical units (Japanese Laparoscopic Surgery Study Group). The short- and long-term outcomes of these patients were examined. RESULTS: Distal gastrectomy was performed in 1185 patients (91.5%), proximal gastrectomy in 54 (4.2%), and total gastrectomy in 55 (4.3%); all were performed laparoscopically. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with these operations were 14.8% and 0%, respectively. Histologically, 1212 patients (93.7%) had stage IA disease, 75 (5.8%) had stage IB disease, and 7 (0.5%) had stage II disease (the UICC staging). Cancer recurred in only 6 (0.6%) of 1294 patients treated curatively (median follow-up, 36 months; range, 13-113 months). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 99.8% for stage IA disease, 98.7% for stage IB disease, and 85.7% for stage II disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although our findings may be considered preliminary, our data indicate that laparoscopic surgery for EGC yields good short- and long-term oncologic outcomes.  相似文献
2.
重症急性胰腺炎中西医结合诊治常规(草案)   总被引:36,自引:7,他引:29  
目的:制定重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)中西医结合治疗试行指南。方法:以循证医学证据为基础,通过查阅大量文献报道,采用系统综述的方法,参阅国内外多项指南内容,广泛征求专家意见和建议,初步制定出《重症急性胰腺炎中西医结合诊治常规》(草案)。指南中的推荐意见依据2001年国际感染论坛(ISF)提出的Delphi分级标准,推荐级别分为A-E,其中A级最高。结果:SAP是临床上常见的一类急腹症,病程通常分为三期。早期的重症监护治疗对SAP患者是至关重要的,而快速恰当的液体复苏又能预防循环并发症的发生。蛋白酶抑制剂如加贝酯,胰酶抑制剂如善得定,抗炎剂如昔帕泛等,尽管早期研究发现有效,但随后的大样本随机研究证实其效果不理想,不推荐常规使用。预防性抗生素应用可能在预防感染方面有效,但是否给予意见不一。如果给予,则疗程不应超过14d。SAP患者的营养支持是必需的,若肠道功能恢复,则优先选择肠内营养,肠内营养中经鼻空肠置管是可行的。胆道结石引起的SAP,有胆管炎、黄疸或胆总管扩张时,应紧急行ERCP治疗。当患者有脓毒症症状时,细针穿刺抽吸物培养是可靠的鉴别无菌性胰腺坏死和感染性胰腺坏死的方法。感染性胰腺坏死合并有脓毒症症状和体征时,是外科干预的指征,包括手术清除坏死组织和影像引导下引流。坏死组织清除的术式选择及术后的处理取决于患者病情和医师经验。中医治疗在降低SAP病死率、缩短病程方面是被实践证实了的有效手段。结论:该指南是以循证医学为指导制定的,随新的证据不断形成则应不断更新。  相似文献
3.
NOTES transvaginal cholecystectomy: preliminary clinical application   总被引:27,自引:8,他引:19  
Background Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging concept in the recent literature that could lead to potential benefits in clinical applications. Restricted to animal experiments, however, human procedures have not yet been published. Because of the technical and ethical challenges involved in perforation and closure of a healthy organ—as is also seen in operating via the transgastric route—and because of the lack of understanding of the physiopathology and infection risk with these approaches, they have not been applied in the clinical setting. Thus the present study, based on previous animal experiments, describes preliminary clinical application in four cases of transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy, and discusses safety, feasibility, and potential benefits of the method. Methods Preliminary acute and survival animal experiments developed by the NOTES Research Group at our institution solved such technical problems for transvaginal NOTES as spatial orientation, insufflation, and instrumentation, making possible the introduction of NOTES as a clinical application. The trials were approved by ethics committee of our institution, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Since 13 March 2007, four female patients with elective surgical indication for cholecystectomy have undergone transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy. All intraoperative and postoperative parameters were documented. Vaginal access was achieved under direct vision with conventional instruments, and a 2-channel colonoscope was inserted into the abdominal cavity. After endoscopic insufflation to achieve pneumoperitoneum with CO2, instruments were inserted through and alongside a colonoscope, allowing successful NOTES cholecystectomy in all patients, with vaginal extraction of the gallbladder. The vaginal wound was closed by direct vision using conventional instruments. Results The procedure was successful in all patients, with operative time of 45–115 min. Patients experienced low need for postoperative analgesia. Free oral intake was permitted 2 h after the procedure. There were no postoperative complications, and patients were discharged, according to the study protocol, 48 h after the procedure. Conclusions Preliminary results showed the feasibility and safety of the transvaginal NOTES method in this small initial study population. The technique, developed in our institution, and not transgastric NOTES, may be the preferred approach to serve as the basis for clinical studies.  相似文献
4.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has shown to improve local control and survival in combination with conventional surgery. The TME trial investigated the value of this regimen in combination with total mesorectal excision. Long-term results are reported after a median follow-up of 6 years. METHODS: One thousand eight hundred and sixty-one patients with resectable rectal cancer were randomized between TME preceded by 5 x 5 Gy or TME alone. No chemotherapy was allowed. There was no age limit. Surgery, radiotherapy, and pathologic examination were standardized. Primary endpoint was local control. RESULTS: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.1 year. Five-year local recurrence risk of patients undergoing a macroscopically complete local resection was 5.6% in case of preoperative radiotherapy compared with 10.9% in patients undergoing TME alone (P < 0.001). Overall survival at 5 years was 64.2% and 63.5%, respectively (P = 0.902). Subgroup analyses showed significant effect of radiotherapy in reducing local recurrence risk for patients with nodal involvement, for patients with lesions between 5 and 10 cm from the anal verge, and for patients with uninvolved circumferential resection margins. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing follow-up, there is a persisting overall effect of preoperative short-term radiotherapy on local control in patients with clinically resectable rectal cancer. However, there is no effect on overall survival. Since survival is mainly determined by distant metastases, efforts should be directed towards preventing systemic disease.  相似文献
5.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the parameters related to the effective selection of patients who could receive prognostic benefit from lateral pelvic node dissection. BACKGROUND: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of lateral nodal involvement (LNI) remains difficult, and the indications for lateral lymph node dissection have been controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 244 consecutive patients who underwent potentially curative surgery with lateral dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer (1985-2000) were reviewed. Patients were stratified into groups based on various parameters, and the therapeutic value index for survival benefit was compared among groups. The therapeutic index of lateral dissection was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the lateral area and the cancer-related 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis to the lateral area, irrespective of metastasis to other areas (mesorectal, superior rectal artery [SRA], and inferior mesenteric artery [IMA] areas). RESULTS: LNI was observed in 41 patients (17%); and 88% of them had nodal involvement in the region along the internal iliac/pudendal artery or in the obturator region ("vulnerable field"). The cancer-related 5-year survival rate among the patients with LNI was 42%; the therapeutic index for lateral dissection was calculated as 7.0 patients, which was much higher than that of lymphadenectomy of the SRA area (1.6 patients) and the IMA area (0.4 patients), and almost comparable to that of lymphadenectomy of the upward mesorectal area (6.9 patients). Although it was possible to select groups at high and low risk for LNI based on several parameters related to tumor aggressiveness, such as tumor differentiation in biopsy specimens, the therapeutic value index was not significantly different between these groups. Unlike these parameters, the diameter of the largest lymph node in the "vulnerable field," which was positively correlated with the rate of LNI but irrelevant to the prognosis, was able to successfully stratify patients by therapeutic index. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced lower rectal cancer patients having LNI in the lateral pelvic area are likely to receive prognostic benefit from lymphadenectomy. The most efficient means of determining the effectiveness of lateral dissection preoperatively is to estimate the nodal diameter in the "vulnerable" lateral regions by diagnostic imaging.  相似文献
6.
Background Natural-orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a possible advancement for surgical interventions. We initiated a pilot study in humans to investigate feasibility and develop the techniques and technology necessary for NOTES. Reported herein is the first human clinical trial of NOTES, performing transoral transgastric diagnostic peritoneoscopy. Methods Patients were scheduled to undergo diagnostic laparoscopic evaluation of a pancreatic mass. The findings of traditional laparoscopy were recorded by anatomical abdominal quadrant. A second surgeon, blinded to the laparoscopic findings, performed transgastric peritoneoscopy. Diagnostic findings between the two methods were compared and operative times and clinical course were recorded. Definitive care was based on findings at diagnostic laparoscopy. Results Ten patients completed the protocol with an average age of 67.6 years. All patients underwent diagnostic laparoscopy followed by successful transgastric access and diagnostic endoscopic peritoneoscopy. The average time of diagnostic laparoscopy was 12.3 minutes compared to 24.8 minutes for the transgastric route. Transgastric abdominal exploration corroborated the decision to proceed to open exploration made during traditional laparoscopic exploration in 9 of 10 patients. Peritoneal or liver biopsies were obtained in four patients by traditional laparoscopy and in one patient by the transgastric access route. Findings were confirmed by laparotomy in nine patients. Eight patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and two underwent palliative gastrojejunostomy and/or hepaticojejunostomy. Conclusions Transgastric diagnostic peritoneoscopy is safe and feasible. This study demonstrates the initial steps of NOTES in humans, providing a potential platform for incisionless surgery. Technical issues, including instrumentation, visualization, intra-abdominal manipulation, and gastric closure need further development.  相似文献
7.
Hasenboehler E  Rikli D  Babst R 《Injury》2007,38(3):365-370
With the introduction of Locking Compression Plates (LCP), Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) has become widely used. The plates act as internal fixators in a bridging manner, thus resulting in secondary bone healing. We retrospectively evaluated the healing pattern and the clinical evolution of diaphyseal and distal tibial shaft fractures over two and a half years in 32 patients (6 females, 26 males). Fractures were classified according to AO classification and included all 42A-C, 43A-B and 43C1-2 types. For open fractures, Gustillo Anderson classification was used. Plates consisted of the 4.5mm LCP and 3.5mm LCP-Pilon form plate. Clinical and radiological assessment was performed at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Fracture healing was defined as callus bridging of one cortex, seen on both lateral and posterior-anterior X-ray, and full, painless weight bearing. Ten patients at 3 months, 23 at 6 months, and 27 at 9 months met the criteria for a healed fracture. Plate bending was observed in one patient and called for re-operation at 5 months. Two patients required re-operation at 13 months secondary to pseudoarthrosis. Though MIPO seems more advantageous for soft tissue and bone biology, prolonged healing was observed in simple fracture patterns when a bridging plate technique was used.  相似文献
8.
Background: Surgical management of the supersuper obese patient (BMI >60 kg/m2) has been a challenging problem associated with higher morbidity, mortality, and long-term weight loss failure. Current limited experience exists with a two-stage biliopancreatic diversion and duodenal switch in the supersuper obese patient, and we now present our early experience with a two-stage gastric bypass for these patients. Methods: We completed a retrospective bariatric database and chart review of super-super obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as a first-stage procedure followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as a second-stage for more definitive treatment of obesity. Results: During a two-year period, 7 patients with BMI 58-71 kg/m2 underwent a two-stage laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass by two surgeons at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. 3 patients were female, 4 patients were male, and the average age was 43. Prior to the sleeve gastrectomy, the mean weight was 181 kg with a BMI of 63. Average time between procedures was 11 months. Prior to the second-stage procedure, the mean weight was 145 kg with a BMI of 50 and average excess weight loss of 37 kg (33% EWL). Six patients have had follow-up after the second-stage procedure with an average of 2.5 months. At follow-up the mean weight was 126 kg with a BMI of 44 and average excess weight loss of 51 kg (46% EWL). The mean operative times for the two procedures were 124 and 158 minutes respectively. The average length of stay for all procedures was 2.7 days. 4 patients had 5 complications, which included splenic injury, proximal anastomotic stricture, left arm nerve praxia, trocar site hernia, and urinary tract infection.There were no mortalities in the series. Conclusions: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with second-stage Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are feasible and effective procedures based on short-term results. This two-stage approach is a reasonable alternative for surgical treatment of the high-risk supersuper obese patient.  相似文献
9.
BACKGROUND: Cellular events mediated by the Tie2 receptor are important to tumor neovascularization. Despite the complex interplay of the best-characterized Tie2 ligands, angiopoietins 1 and 2, Ang2 is purportedly "proangiogenic" in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. We examined whether in vivo administration of an RNA aptamer that specifically blocks Ang 2 would inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth. METHODS: Ang2-mediated Tie2 receptor phosphorylation was assessed in vitro in the absence and presence of aptamer coupled to polyethylene glycol. IN VIVO ANGIOGENESIS ASSAY: CT26 murine colon carcinoma cells expressing green fluorescent protein were delivered into mouse dorsal skinfold window chambers. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of phosphate-buffered saline, low-dose (Ang2 aptamer-LD; 1 mg/kg/d), or high-dose aptamer (Ang2 aptamer-HD; 10 mg/kg/d). Vascular length density was measured under fluorescence microscopy. PRIMARY TUMOR GROWTH: CT26 cells expressing luciferase were injected into flanks of BALB/c mice to allow tumor growth monitoring by bioluminescence imaging. Animals received continuous phosphate-buffered saline or aptamer (1 mg/kg/d) via ALZET pumps. Tumors were assessed for CD31/PECAM-1 immunostaining and Hoechst dye uptake. RESULTS: Pegylated aptamer inhibited Tie2 phosphorylation. Systemic aptamer administration reduced vascular length density (P < or = 0.03) and decreased bioluminescence emission (P < 0.04), corresponding to 50% decrease in tumor volume (P = 0.04). Control tumors displayed abundant vascular marker staining, in contrast to tumors from aptamer-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: in vivo administration of a clinically relevant, pegylated RNA aptamer specifically designed against Ang2 inhibited tumor angiogenesis and growth. These findings support targeted Ang2 inhibition as a relevant anti-angiogenic, anti-neoplastic strategy.  相似文献
10.
Patton JH  Berry S  Kralovich KA 《American journal of surgery》2007,193(3):360-3; discussion 363
BACKGROUND: Few good surgical options exist for the repair of complex anterior abdominal wall defects, particularly those in which bacterial contamination is present. The use of prosthetic mesh increases complication rates when the mesh is placed directly over viscera or when the surgical site is contaminated from a pre-existing infection or enteric spillage. The use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM), which becomes vascularized and remodeled into autologous tissue after implantation, may represent a low-morbidity alternative to prosthetic mesh products in these complex settings. This study examined our experience with ADM in the reconstruction of contaminated abdominal wall defects. METHODS: Patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstructions in the face of contamination with ADM between May 2002 and December 2005 underwent retrospective chart review. Demographics, indications for ADM placement, plane of implantation, complications, and follow-up data were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were identified. The indications for ADM placement included incarcerated hernias, infected mesh, fistulae, early/delayed abdominal wall reconstruction after intra-abdominal catastrophe or trauma, dehiscence/evisceration, and spillage of enteric contents. The ADM was positioned either above the fascia or beneath the fascia or was sutured directly to the fascial edges. Sixteen patients developed a wound infection; the majority of these were superficial and required only local wound care, 5 required some further surgical intervention, and 2 required removal of the ADM. Twelve patients developed recurrent hernias. The mean follow-up time for the study population was 10.6 months. CONCLUSIONS: ADM can be used safely and effectively as an alternative to traditional mesh products for abdominal wall reconstructions, even in the setting of contaminated fields.  相似文献
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