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1.
OBJECTIVES: To report clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes of in kidney transplant recipients who had cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the records of kidney transplant recipients followed regularly from 2001 to 2006. In some patients information was also gathered through a telephone call or physical examination. The CMV infection diagnosis was also made by detecting PP.65 antigen per 50,000 peripheral blood leukocytes. RESULTS: Of the 200 kidney transplant recipients, 66 were infected with CMV including 42 men and 24 women. The mean patient age was 40 +/- 13 years (range, 14 to 67 years). Seventy-nine percent of the infected patients were diagnosed during the first 6-months after transplantation. All except 22 patients (33%) had constitutional complaints. Fever was present in 65% of patients, abdominal pain in 21%, diarrhea in 20%, and vomiting in 15%. Likewise, pulmonary complaints including cough and dyspnea were reported by 32% and 23%, respectively. However, 20% of patients were completely asymptomatic. Hematologic laboratory data showed anemia (64%), thrombocytopenia (47%), and leukopenia (21%). Seventy eight percent of patients had a serum creatinine 相似文献
2.
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are known causes of morbidity among patients with chronic illnesses. There is controversy whether hemodialysis or renal transplanted subjects have less severe anxiety or depression symptoms. We designed this study to evaluate these symptoms in the two groups of subjects. METHODS: In a case-control study performed in 2006, we randomly selected 32 transplant recipients and 39 hemodialysis patients. The two groups were matched for gender, age, marital status, educational background, and somatic comorbidities. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were compared between the groups using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. RESULTS: Anxiety score was significantly lower among transplant recipients compared with hemodialysis patients (8.61 +/- 3.09 vs 10.41 +/- 2.77; P=.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the score for depression (P>.05). In transplant recipients, the severity of anxiety was higher among those with a history of graft rejection and those <35 years at the time of transplantation (P<.05). The severity of depressive symptoms was higher among subjects with lower educational status (P<.05). CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms did not seem to improve after renal transplantation, which highlights the need for screening and appropriate treatment of depression. Transplant recipients with a history of rejection or a young age at the time of transplantation should receive more attention for psychiatric problems.  相似文献
3.
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) is under continuous evolution all over the world. We report here the epidemiological analysis of ESRD and RRT in Iran and discuss it against the background of the international situation. METHODS: This epidemiological report is based on data from centre questionnaires which were collected in Iran from 1997 onwards, with a response rate of 100%. RESULTS: The prevalence/incidence of RRT patients were 238/49.9 p.m.p. in the year 2000. Haemodialysis and kidney transplantation were the most common RRT modalities, accounting for 53.7% and 45.5% of prevalent RRT patients, respectively. The proportion treated by peritoneal dialysis was very low (<1%). Home haemodialysis was not performed. The majority of haemodialysis centres used synthetic membranes (70%) and 100% of the sessions were performed using acetate as a buffer; 42.5% of haemodialysis patients were treated with a twice-weekly regimen, whilst 49.6% were on the standard thrice-weekly regimen. The majority of RRT patients in Iran were young to middle aged. The great majority of renal allografts came from living donors (mainly unrelated to recipients). The main renal diseases leading to ESRD were diabetes and hypertension. The third most common category was "cause unknown". CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of RRT in Iran is characterized by: (i) young patient age (younger than the international average); (ii) high proportion of patients receiving renal allograft; (iii) use of living-unrelated donors as the major source of renal allografts.  相似文献
4.
Unwanted hairs are a common problem in which different light sources were developed as the treatment of choice. Alexandrite laser, diode laser, and intense pulsed light (IPL) were clinically used for this purpose with long-term scarce comparative results. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy, complications, and long-term hair reduction of alexandrite laser, diode laser, and IPL. Clinical trials on 232 persons using diode, alexandrite, laser and IPL were conducted. The number of sessions to reach optimal result varied between 3 and 7. Then the side effects were evaluated. Six months after the last session, optimal hair reduction was observed with no significant differences between the light sources, but a hair reduction was found to be higher using the diode laser. Side effects were observed with all light sources but more frequently with diode. Our findings indicate that all three light sources tested have similar effects on hair removal and in Iranian patients, using lower wavelengths minimizes the side effects.  相似文献
5.
Prognostic factors in survival of colorectal cancer patients after surgery   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Objective  To determine the factors affecting survival, following resection of large bowel for colorectal carcinoma.
Method  From the cancer database of a single referral institution, a total of 1090 patients who had undergone colorectal resection between 1999 and 2002 were identified. Cases with recurrent colorectal cancer or previous history of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate analysis of factors thought to influence survival was then made using Logrank test. Criteria studied consisted of age, sex, TNM stage, T-status, nodal status, distant metastasis, histological grade, lymphatic and vascular invasion, tumour location, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level and liver function tests. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Cox regression analysis.
Results  The mean survival time for all patients was 42.8 (SEM = 2.8) months. The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 72%, 54% and 47%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients' age ( P  < 0.0001), TNM stage ( P  < 0.0001), T-status ( P  = 0.015), nodal status ( P  = 0.016), distant metastasis ( P  < 0.0001), grade ( P  = 0.005), lymphatic and vascular invasion ( P  < 0.0001) and presurgery CEA level > 5 ng/ml ( P  = 0.021) were found to be predictors that could affect survival. In Cox regression analysis, age ( P  < 0.0001), TNM stage ( P  = 0.001) and grade ( P  = 0.008) were determined as independent prognostic factors of survival.
Conclusion  Age, TNM stage, T-status, nodal status, distant metastasis, grade, lymphatic and vascular invasion and presurgery CEA level can predict the postsurgical survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer.  相似文献
6.
PURPOSE: Achieving access to the pyelocaliceal system in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is routinely performed using fluoroscopic guidance. We compared ultrasonography-guided access for PCNL with conventional fluoroscopy-guided access. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a clinical trial, 100 patients with no abnormality of the upper urinary tract were selected from among candidates for PCNL and randomly assigned to two 50-patient groups: ultrasonography-guided access (group 1) versus fluoroscopy-guided access (group 2). In group 1, location of the target calix was identified in the transverse and sagittal planes by real-time ultrasonography when patients were in the prone position. Puncture of the target calix was attempted with a Chiba needle attached to the side of the ultrasound probe. If access to the collecting system was achieved, the site of puncture was controlled using fluoroscopy. In group 2, access was achieved using fluoroscopy guidance. Tract dilatation and stone extraction were the same in both groups. The mean age of patients was 40.7 +/- 12 years and 41.6 +/- 13.7 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.4). The male to female ratio in groups 1 and 2 was 34/16 and 31/19, respectively (P = 0.5). RESULTS: On average, duration of access was 11 +/- 3.5 minutes and 5.5 +/- 1.7 minutes in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.0001). Duration of radiation exposure, on average, was 0.69 +/- 0.26 minutes and 0.95 +/- 0.44 minutes in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Access for PCNL using ultrasonography guidance is an acceptable alternative to fluoroscopy and decreases radiation hazards.  相似文献
7.
Partial cholecystectomy (PC) is an alternative choice to standard cholecystectomy in situations with increased risk of Calot's components injury. We reported our experience with the patients treated with PC and reviewed the literature. Fifty-four patients with complex acute cholecystitis underwent PC, including conventional partial cholecystectomy (CPC; n = 48) and laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy (LPC; n = 6). The clinical diagnosis was verified by ultrasonography. In addition, we reviewed 1190 published cases (1972-2005) who underwent a "nonconventional" surgery for severe cholecystitis, including cholecystostomy, CPC, or LPC. Review of the literature, including our cases, showed a male:female ratio of 1.3:1. The major operative indication was severe acute cholecystitis. Procedures included cholecystostomy (65.8%) and PC (34.2%). In the follow-up (n = 1190), biliary leak (4.8%), retained stones (4.6%), recurrent symptoms (2.3%), wound infections (1.9%), persistent biliary fistula (0.9%), and prolonged biliary drainage (0.2%) were found, with an overall mortality rate of 9.4 per cent. In 133 patients, because of postoperative complications (e.g., recurrent symptoms, remaining common bile duct stones, or persistence of bile fistula), reoperation was necessary, including 121 cases (90.1%) of cholecystectomy, whereas the other 11 patients underwent other procedures such as common bile duct exploration or closure of the fistula. The surgical trend for complex acute cholecystitis treatment has been changed from only cholecystostomy to a spectrum of cholecystostomy, CPC, and LPC with the progressive increase of PC. The proportion of the LPC compared with CPC has also increased during recent years. It seems that PC is a safe procedure for treating complicated acute cholecystitis. Whether the indication and need for alternative techniques to standard cholecystectomy is changing should be evaluated in future studies.  相似文献
8.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the time-dependent regeneration of different cellular components in the bladder acellular matrix graft (BAMG) and the involvement of hematopoietic stem cells in BAMG vascular regeneration. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three male Sprague Dawley rats underwent partial cystectomy and the acellular matrices were grafted to the remaining host bladder. At 4, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, and 180 d after grafting, animals were sacrificed and their bladders were excised and paraffin-embedded. Tissue sections were stained for determination of CD3, CD20, CD34, CD31, CD68, smooth muscle cell (SMC) alpha-actin, and neurofilament protein as well as elastin fibers and collagen typing. Cystometric evaluation of grafted bladders was also performed 3 mo after procedure. RESULTS: In acellular matrices, there was no expression of cellular markers and type-1 collagen fibers were predominant. One month after surgery, all grafted matrices were completely lined with urothelium. Polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes densely infiltrated BAMG during the first 2 wk after grafting; however the inflammation resolved by the first post-surgical mo. CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were found in all grafts 4 d after surgery. The number of CD34+ cells increased continuously and peaked 2 mo after grafting. The increment in number of CD31+ microvessels in grafted matrices followed that of CD34+ cells and reached 144.5% of control values at third post-surgical mo. The mean number of CD34+ and CD31+ cells returned to control ranges by 6 mo after grafting. Expression of SMC alpha-actin was first visualized on day 4 and alpha-actin intensity reached to control values 6 mo after grafting. Neural elements appeared 1 wk after grafting and just 60% of normal intensity was achieved by the sixth post-surgical mo; however complete nerve bundles were found in all grafted matrices after 1 mo. Cystometric studies revealed higher bladder capacity and compliance but lower maximum intravesical pressure in grafted bladders in comparison with controls, 3 mo after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the effective cellular regeneration in BAMG and propose a considerable role for the CD34+ EPCs in the neo-vasculogenesis of the grafts.  相似文献
9.
Kidney transplantation in children with augmentation cystoplasty   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Basiri A  Otoukesh H  Simforoosh N  Hosseini R  Farrokhi F 《The Journal of urology》2007,178(1):274-7; discussion 277
PURPOSE: Treatment of children with end stage renal disease, especially those with significant bladder dysfunction, is difficult. A high pressure and low capacity bladder is a major risk factor for a transplanted kidney. Cystoplasty can protect the kidney allograft by reducing the intravesical pressure and creating an appropriate capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of kidney transplantation in children with and without prior cystoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 43 children with bladder dysfunction in urgent need of cystoplasty were enrolled in the study and were compared to a control group with regard to acute and chronic rejection rates, survival of the transplanted kidney, surgical complications and febrile urinary tract infection. RESULTS: The rates of febrile urinary tract infection and chronic rejection were significantly higher in patients with prior cystoplasty (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Also, graft loss was much more frequent in these patients (34.9% vs 20.9%), although this difference was not statistically significant. In patients with prior cystoplasty graft survival rates were 92%, 73%, 58% and 45% at postoperative years 1, 3, 5 and 7, respectively. In the control group these rates were 94%, 87%, 81% and 75%, respectively (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, the survival rate of the kidney is significantly lower in children with prior cystoplasty, possibly due to the higher prevalence of chronic rejection and febrile urinary tract infection in this group.  相似文献
10.
Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy in the past decade, allograft rejection remains the primary cause for kidney graft failure. Cytokines are known to be important mediators in renal allograft outcome. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta cytokine gene polymorphisms contributed to kidney graft outcome. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphism in IL-4 (-1098G/T, -590C/T, -33C/T), IL-10 (-1082A/G, -819C/T, -592A/C), and TGF-beta (codon 10 and 25) in 100 renal transplant recipients and 139 normal healthy control using polymerase chain reactions based on sequence-specific primers. Recipients were clinically characterized as rejection episode (RE) versus stable graft function (SGF). The results showed the frequencies of IL-4 -33 T allele in the RE, SGF, and control group to be 7%, 73%, and 28%, respectively. IL-10 -592 A allele frequency was 39% in RE, 26% in SGF, and 28% in the control group. TGF-beta codon 10 T allele was 39% in RE, 35% in SGF, and 53% in control group. In conclusion, this study suggested that some cytokine gene alleles reflected SGF among kidney transplant recipients.  相似文献
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