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1.
Visual working memory (WM) is a limited capacity system which maintains information about objects in the immediate visual environment. Recent neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified sustained memory-item specific activity during the retention period of WM tasks, and this activity may be a physiological substrate of maintaining representations in WM. In the present study, we present an electrophysiological measure of delay activity using event-related potentials (ERPs). Subjects were asked to remember the items in a single hemifield presented within a bilateral display. Approximately 200 msec following the onset of the memory array, we observed a large negative wave at electrode sites that were contralateral with respect to the position of the memory items. This activity persisted throughout the retention period and appears to be an analog to delay activity observed in monkey single-unit and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) WM studies. The contralateral delay activity is modulated by the number of items in the memory array but reaches asymptote for arrays of 3 to 4 items. This activity is similar across different classes of simple objects and the amplitude is smaller on incorrect response trials relative to correct trials, suggesting that this activity is necessary for correct performance on a given trial. Together, these results appear to indicate an electrophysiological index of the maintained representations in visual WM.  相似文献
2.
Gender differences in the cognitive control of emotion: An fMRI study   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
The interaction of emotion and cognition has become a topic of major interest. However, the influence of gender on the interplay between the two processes, along with its neural correlates have not been fully analysed so far. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we induced negative emotion using negative olfactory stimulation while male (n=21) and female (n=19) participants performed an n-back verbal working memory task. Based on findings indicating increased emotional reactivity in women, we expected the female participants to exhibit stronger activation in characteristically emotion-associated areas during the interaction of emotional and cognitive processing in comparison to the male participants. Both groups were found to be significantly impaired in their working memory performance by negative emotion induction. However, fMRI analysis revealed distinct differences in neuronal activation between groups. In men, cognitive performance under negative emotion induction was associated with extended activation patterns in mainly prefrontal and superior parietal regions. In women, the interaction between emotion and working memory yielded a significantly stronger response in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to their male counterparts. Our data suggest that in women the interaction of verbal working memory and negative emotion is associated with relative hyperactivation in more emotion-associated areas whereas in men regions commonly regarded as important for cognition and cognitive control are activated. These results provide new insights in gender-specific cerebral mechanisms.  相似文献
3.
Cabeza R 《Neuropsychologia》2008,46(7):1813-1827
Although parietal cortex is frequently activated during episodic memory retrieval, damage to this region does not markedly impair episodic memory. To account for these and other findings, a new dual attentional processes (DAP) hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) contributes top-down attentional processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) contributes bottom-up attentional processes captured by the retrieval output. Consistent with this hypothesis, DPC activity increases with retrieval effort whereas VPC activity increases with confidence in old and new responses. The DAP hypothesis can also account for the overlap of parietal activations across different cognitive domains and for opposing effects of parietal activity on encoding vs. retrieval. Finally, the DAP hypothesis explains why VPC lesions yield a memory neglect syndrome: a deficit in spontaneously reporting relevant memory details but not in accessing the same details when guided by specific questions.  相似文献
4.
Working memory deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Previous working memory studies suggest a load dependent storage deficit. However, explicit studies of higher executive working memory processes are limited. Moreover, few studies have examined whether subcomponents of working memory such as encoding and maintenance of information are differentially affected by these deficits. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the neural substrates of working memory subprocesses requiring stimulus encoding, maintenance and higher executive processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging a modified Sternberg working memory task involving verbal stimulus material was applied. The event-related design enabled the segregation of encoding, active maintenance and executive manipulation of information. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy subjects were included. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenic patients demonstrated a significantly stronger activation pattern in a fronto-parietal network during executive information manipulation. Additionally, significant relative hypoactivity was detectable in the thalamus. Conversely, during stimulus encoding the patients demonstrated lower activation relative to controls in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus. The present findings indicate a pronounced prefrontal functional hyperactivation within the neural network subserving higher executive working memory control processes in schizophrenia. Moreover, they suggest that these altered activations during executive control are related to a preceding abnormality of information encoding. During encoding, a reduced activation in mainly dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions was observed. These results could be explained by increased top-down control processing from prefrontal cortex as a compensation for functional deficits occurring during encoding.  相似文献
5.
The C957T polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and the Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) gene affect dopamine transmission and have been found to be associated with schizophrenia. Since DRD2 in mice and the COMT gene in humans modulate working memory, we examined the relationship and possible interaction of both polymorphisms to working memory performance in 188 healthy adults. Subjects having the DRD2 C/C allele showed the poorest performance in a word serial position test. Moreover, the effect of the C957T genotype was strengthened when interaction with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was included in the analysis. We propose that an interaction of the DRD2 C957T and COMT Val158Met may be involved in the generation of some working memory deficits in schizophrenia.  相似文献
6.
The medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus serve well recognized roles in memory processing. The hippocampus projects densely to, and exerts strong excitatory actions on, the medial prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, the medial prefrontal cortex, in rats and other species, has no direct return projections to the hippocampus, and few projections to parahippocampal structures including the entorhinal cortex. It is well established that the nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus is the major source of thalamic afferents to the hippocampus. Since the medial prefrontal cortex also distributes to nucleus reuniens, we examined medial prefrontal connections with populations of nucleus reuniens neurons projecting to hippocampus. We used a combined anterograde and retrograde tracing procedure at the light and electron microscopic levels. Specifically, we made Phaseolus vulgaris-leuccoagglutinin (PHA-L) injections into the medial prefrontal cortex and Fluorogold injections into the hippocampus (CA1/subiculum) and examined termination patterns of anterogradely PHA-L labeled fibers on retrogradely FG labeled cells of nucleus reuniens. At the light microscopic level, we showed that fibers from the medial prefrontal cortex form multiple putative synaptic contacts with dendrites of hippocampally projecting neurons throughout the extent of nucleus reuniens. At ultrastructural level, we showed that medial prefrontal cortical fibers form asymmetric contacts predominantly with dendritic shafts of hippocampally projecting reuniens cells. These findings indicate that nucleus reuniens represents a critical link between the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. We discuss the possibility that nucleus reuniens gates the flow of information between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus dependent upon attentive/arousal states of the organism.  相似文献
7.
Down syndrome (DS) individuals develop several neuropathological hallmarks seen in Alzheimer's disease, including cognitive decline and the early loss of cholinergic markers in the basal forebrain. These deficits are replicated in the Ts65Dn mouse, which contains a partial trisomy of murine chromosome 16, the orthologous genetic segment to human chromosome 21. Oxidative stress levels are elevated early in DS, and may contribute to the neurodegeneration seen in these individuals. We evaluated oxidative stress in Ts65Dn mice, and assessed the efficacy of long-term antioxidant supplementation on memory and basal forebrain pathology. We report that oxidative stress was elevated in the adult Ts65Dn brain, and that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E effectively reduced these markers. Also, Ts65Dn mice receiving vitamin E exhibited improved performance on a spatial working memory task and showed an attenuation of cholinergic neuron pathology in the basal forebrain. This study provides evidence that vitamin E delays onset of cognitive and morphological abnormalities in a mouse model of DS, and may represent a safe and effective treatment early in the progression of DS neuropathology.  相似文献
8.
We used neuropsychological tasks to investigate integrity of brain circuits linking orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala (orbitofrontal-amygdala), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (dorsolateral prefrontal-hippocampus), in 138 individuals aged 7-18 years, with and without autism. We predicted that performance on orbitofrontal-amygdala tasks would be poorer in the Autism group compared to the Non-Autism group regardless of intellectual level (verbal mental age, VMA) and that performance on dorsolateral prefrontal-hippocampus tasks would be associated primarily with intellectual level. Predicted differences between Autism and Non-Autism groups on orbitofrontal-amygdala tasks were present but greater in individuals with higher VMA. On dorsolateral prefrontal-hippocampus tasks, poorer performance by the Autism compared to the Non-Autism group was found at all VMA levels. Group differences suggest both brain circuits are impaired in autism, but performance on all tasks is also associated with intellectual level.  相似文献
9.
The cerebellum is a recent addition to the growing list of cerebral areas involved in the multifaceted structural system that sustains verbal working memory (vWM), but its contribution is still a matter of debate. Here, we present a patient with a selective deficit of vWM resulting from a bilateral cerebellar ischemic lesion. After this acute event, the patient had impaired immediate and delayed word-serial recall and auditory-verbal delayed recognition. The digit span, however, was completely preserved. To investigate the cerebellar contribution to vWM, four experiments addressing the function of different vWM phonological loop components were performed 18 months after the lesion, and results were compared with normative data or, when needed, with a small group of matched controls. In Experiment 1, digit span was assessed with different presentation and response modalities using lists of digits of varying lengths. In Experiment 2, the articulatory rehearsal system was analyzed by measurement of word length and articulatory suppression effects. Experiment 3 was devoted to analyzing the phonological short-term store (ph-STS) by the recency effect, the phonological similarity effect, short-term forgetting, and unattended speech. Data suggested a possible key role of the semantic component of the processed material, which was tested in Experiment 4, in which word and nonword-serial recall with or without interpolating activity were analyzed. The patient showed noticeably reduced scores in the tasks that primarily or exclusively engaged activity of the ph-STS, namely those of Experiment 3, and good performance in the tests that investigated the recirculation of verbal information. This pattern of results implicates the ph-STS as the cognitive locus of the patient's deficit. This report demonstrates a cerebellar role in encoding and/or strengthening the phonological traces in vWM.  相似文献
10.
The manipulation of numbers required during calculation is known to rely on working memory (WM) resources. Here, we investigated the respective contributions of verbal and/or spatial WM manipulation brain networks during the addition of four numbers performed by adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both manipulation and maintenance tasks were proposed with syllables, locations, or two-digit numbers. As compared to their maintenance, numbers manipulation (addition) elicited increased activation within a widespread cortical network including inferior temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions. Our results demonstrate that mastery of arithmetic calculation requires the cooperation of three WM manipulation systems: an executive manipulation system conjointly recruited by the three manipulation tasks, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the caudate nuclei; a left-lateralized, language-related, inferior fronto-temporal system elicited by numbers and syllables manipulation tasks required for retrieval, selection, and association of symbolic information; and a right superior and posterior fronto-parietal system elicited by numbers and locations manipulation tasks for spatial WM and attentional processes. Our results provide new information that the anterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is involved in tasks requiring a magnitude processing with symbolic (numbers) and nonsymbolic (locations) stimuli. Furthermore, the specificity of arithmetic processing is mediated by a left-hemispheric specialization of the anterior and posterior parts of the IPS as compared to a spatial task involving magnitude processing with nonsymbolic material.  相似文献
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