首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   103篇
  国内免费   3篇
  完全免费   32篇
  神经病学   138篇
  2019年   9篇
  2018年   36篇
  2017年   16篇
  2016年   9篇
  2015年   9篇
  2014年   6篇
  2013年   8篇
  2012年   6篇
  2011年   11篇
  2010年   3篇
  2009年   4篇
  2008年   4篇
  2007年   4篇
  2006年   6篇
  2005年   1篇
  2004年   5篇
  2003年   1篇
排序方式: 共有138条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
Small moving sensations, so-called moving phosphenes are perceived, when V5, a visual area important for visual motion analysis, is stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, it is still a matter of debate if only V5 takes part in movement perception or other visual areas are also involved in this process. In this study we tested the involvement of V1 in the perception of moving phosphenes by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to this area. tDCS is a non-invasive stimulation technique known to modulate cortical excitability in a polarity-specific manner. Moving and stationary phosphene thresholds (PT) were measured by TMS before, immediately after and 10, 20 and 30 min after the end of 10 min cathodal and anodal tDCS in nine healthy subjects. Reduced PTs were detected immediately and 10 min after the end of anodal tDCS while cathodal stimulation resulted in an opposite effect. Our results show that the excitability shifts induced by V1 stimulation can modulate moving phosphene perception. tDCS elicits transient, but yet reversible effects, thus presenting a promising tool for neuroplasticity research.  相似文献
2.
BACKGROUND: Rapid-rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can produce a lasting increase in cortical excitability in healthy subjects or induce beneficial effects in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the conditioning effects of rTMS are often subtle and variable, limiting therapeutic applications. Here we show that magnitude and direction of after-effects induced by rapid-rate rTMS depend on the state of cortical excitability before stimulation and can be tuned by preconditioning with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers received a 20-sec train of 5-Hz rTMS given at an intensity of individual active motor threshold to the left primary motor hand area. This interventional protocol was preconditioned by 10 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS. We used single-pulse TMS to assess corticospinal excitability at rest before, between, and after the two interventions. RESULTS: The 5-Hz rTMS given after sham tDCS failed to produce any after-effect, whereas 5-Hz rTMS led to a marked shift in corticospinal excitability when given after effective tDCS. The direction of rTMS-induced plasticity critically depended on the polarity of tDCS conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: Preconditioning with tDCS enhances cortical plasticity induced by rapid-rate rTMS and can shape the direction of rTMS-induced after-effects.  相似文献
3.
The aim of our study was to test if the electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could modify probabilistic classification learning (PCL). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was administered to the left prefrontal and to the primary visual cortex of 22 healthy subjects while they performed a PCL task. In this task subjects learned which of two outcomes would occur on each trial after presentation of a particular combination of cues. Ten minutes of anodal, but not cathodal, stimulation improved implicit learning only when the left PFC was stimulated. Our results show that implicit PLC can be modified by weak anodal tDCS, which probably increases neural excitability, as has been shown in the motor and visual cortices previously. Our results suggest that further studies on the facilitation of learning and memory processes by tDCS are warranted.  相似文献
4.
Weak transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex results in excitability shifts during and after the end of stimulation, which are most probably localized intracortically. Anodal stimulation enhances excitability, whereas cathodal stimulation reduces it. Although the after-effects of tDCS are NMDA receptor-dependent, nothing is known about the involvement of additional receptors. Here we show that pharmacological strengthening of GABAergic inhibition modulates selectively the after-effects elicited by anodal tDCS. Administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist lorazepam resulted in a delayed, but then enhanced and prolonged anodal tDCS-induced excitability elevation. The initial absence of an excitability enhancement under lorazepam is most probably caused by a loss of the anodal tDCS-generated intracortical diminution of inhibition and enhancement of facilitation, which occurs without pharmacological intervention. The reasons for the late-occurring excitability enhancement remain unclear. Because intracortical inhibition and facilitation are not changed in this phase compared with pre-tDCS values, excitability changes originating from remote cortical or subcortical areas could be involved.  相似文献
5.
The excitability of the cerebral cortex can be modulated by various transcranial stimulation techniques. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) offers the advantage of portable equipment and could, therefore, be used for ambulatory modulation of brain excitability. However, modulation of cortical excitability by tDCS has so far mostly been shown by indirect measures. Therefore, we examined whether tDCS has a direct behavioral/perceptional effect. We compared tactile discrimination of vibratory stimuli to the left ring finger prior to, during and after tDCS applied for 7 min at 1-mA current intensity in 13 subjects. Stimulation was pseudorandomized into cathodal, anodal and sham conditions in a within-subject design. The active electrode was placed over the corresponding somatosensory cortex at C4 according to the 10-20 EEG system and the reference electrode at the forehead above the contralateral orbita. Cathodal stimulation compared with sham induced a prolonged decrease of tactile discrimination, while anodal and sham stimulation did not. Thus, cortical processing can be modulated in a behaviorally/perceptually meaningful way by weak transcranial current stimulation applied through portable technology. This finding offers a new perspective for the treatment of conditions characterized by alterations of cortical excitability.  相似文献
6.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which is an interesting new tool inducing prolonged cortical excitability shifts in humans, induces brain edema, disturbance of the blood-brain barrier or structural alterations of the brain detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: In 10 healthy individuals, tDCS, which is known to alter cortical excitability for about 1 h, was applied over motor and pre-frontal cortices. contrast-enhanced t1-, t2-, and diffusion-weighted mri was performed immediately before, 30 and 60 min after tdcs. RESULTS: MRI performed 30 and 60 min after tDCS did not show pathological signal alterations in pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR sequences. CONCLUSIONS: tDCS protocols which are known to result in cortical excitability changes persisting for an hour after stimulation do not induce brain edema or alterations of the blood-brain barrier or cerebral tissue detectable by MRI. SIGNIFICANCE: These results deliver further evidence for the safety of the currently applied tDCS protocols in humans.  相似文献
7.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (+/-1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function.  相似文献
8.
PURPOSE: Weak direct currents induce lasting alterations of cortical excitability in animals and humans, which are controlled by polarity, duration of stimulation, and current strength applied. To evaluate its anticonvulsant potential, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was tested in a modified cortical ramp-stimulation model of focal epilepsy. METHODS: The threshold for localized seizure activity (TLS) was determined in freely moving rats by applying a single train of rising bipolar pulses through a unilateral epicranial electrode. After tDCS, TLS was determined repeatedly for 120 min at intervals of 15 min. The first group of animals received two sessions of cathodal tDCS at 100 microA, one for 30 and one for 60 min. A third session consisted of 60 min of anodal tDCS. A second group received cathodal tDCS at 200 microA for 15 and for 30 min, as well as anodal tDCS for 30 min. RESULTS: Sixty minutes of cathodal tDCS at 100 microA resulted in a TLS increase lasting for >or=2 h. When the intensity was increased to 200 microA, a similar lasting TLS elevation occurred after a stimulation of just 30-min duration. In contrast, anodal tDCS at identical stimulation durations and current strengths had no significant effect on TLS. CONCLUSIONS: The anticonvulsive effect induced by cathodal tDCS depends on stimulation duration and current strength and may be associated with the induction of alterations of cortical excitability that outlast the actual stimulation. The results lead to the reasonable assumption that cathodal tDCS could evolve as a therapeutic tool in drug-refractory partial epilepsy.  相似文献
9.
PURPOSE: To study the effects of cathodal DC polarization in patients with refractory epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCDs) as indexed by seizure frequency and epileptiform EEG discharges. METHODS: Nineteen patients with MCDs and refractory epilepsy underwent one session of DC polarization (20 min, 1 mA) targeting the epileptogenic focus. The number of epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the EEG and seizures were measured before (baseline), immediately after, and 15 and 30 days after either sham or active DC polarization. Seizure frequency after the treatment was compared with baseline. RESULTS: Active compared with sham DC polarization was associated with a significant reduction in the number of epileptiform discharges [mean ED reduction of -64.3% (95% CI, -122.5% to -6.0%) for the active treatment group and -5.8% (95% CI, -26.8% to 15.2%) for the sham treatment group]. A trend (p = 0.06) was noted for decrease in seizure frequency after active compared with sham treatment [mean seizure frequency decrease of -44.0% (95% CI, -95.0% to 7.1%) for the active treatment group and -11.1% (95% CI, -22.2% to 44.4%) for the sham treatment group]. CONCLUSIONS: This randomized, controlled study shows that cathodal DC polarization does not induce seizures and is well tolerated in patients with refractory epilepsy and MCDs. Furthermore, the results suggest that this technique might have an antiepileptic effect based on clinical and electrophysiological criteria.  相似文献
10.
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is an important predictor of quality of life. Past studies showed that some aspects of cognition, such as working memory, can be enhanced following dopaminergic therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The aim of our study was to investigate whether another form of noninvasive brain stimulation, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability, is associated with a change in a working memory task performance in PD patients. METHODS: We studied 18 patients (12 men and 6 women) with idiopathic PD. The patients performed a three-back working memory task during active anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC), anodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) or sham tDCS. In addition, patients underwent two different types of stimulation with different intensities: 1 and 2 mA. RESULTS: The results of this study show a significant improvement in working memory as indexed by task accuracy, after active anodal tDCS of the LDLPFC with 2 mA. The other conditions of stimulation: sham tDCS, anodal tDCS of LDLPFC with 1 mA or anodal tDCS of M1 did not result in a significant task performance change. CONCLUSION: tDCS may exert a beneficial effect on working memory in PD patients that depends on the intensity and site of stimulation. This effect might be explained by the local increase in the excitability of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号