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1.
Recovery of locomotion after chronic spinalization in the adult cat   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
H. Barbeau  S. Rossignol   《Brain research》1987,412(1):84-95
Cats were spinalized (T13) as adults and were trained to walk with the hindlimbs on a treadmill. After 3 weeks to 3 months and up to 1 year depending on the animal, all were capable of walking on the plantar surface of the feet and support the weight of the hindquarters. Interactive training appeared to accelerate the recovery of locomotion and maintain smooth locomotor movements. Despite the obvious loss of voluntary control and equilibrium which the experimenter partially compensated for by maintaining the thorax and/or the tail, the cats could walk with a regular rhythm and a well-coordinated hindlimb alternation at speeds of 0.1-1.2 m/s. Cycle duration as well as stance and swing duration resembled those of normal cats at comparable speeds. The range of angular motion was also similar to that observed in intact cats as was the coupling between different joints. The EMG activity of the hindlimb and lumbar axial muscles also retained the characteristics observed in the intact animal. Some deficits such as a dragging of the foot in early swing and diminution of the angular excursion in the knee were seen at later stages. Thus, the adult spinal cat preparation is considered as a useful model to study the influence of different types of training and of different drugs or other treatments in the process of locomotor recovery after injury to the spinal cord.  相似文献
2.
行为训练对双侧海马梗死大鼠学习记忆与NCAM的影响   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
目的探讨行为训练对双侧海马梗死大鼠空间学习记忆功能恢复及海马神经细胞粘附因子(NCAM)的影响及其作用机制。方法30只SD大鼠采用光化学诱导法制作双侧海马CA1区梗死模型,于24h后随机分为行为训练组和制动组,于造模3d后分别给予行为训练或制动,在大鼠造模后3d、行为训练后7d、14d和21d时进行学习记忆能力测试。并于不同时间取脑进行免疫组织化学染色,观察其梗死灶海马周围NCAM含量的变化。结果行为训练组学习记忆能力评估均优于制动组(P<0.05),海马NCAM含量均较制动组增多。结论行为训练可促进大鼠空间学习记忆能力的恢复,其作用机制可能与海马NCAM的增多有关。  相似文献
3.
Evidence is reviewed on the prevalence of sensory and motor abnormalities in autism and the effectiveness of three interventions designed to address such abnormalities—sensory integration therapy, traditional occupational therapy, and auditory integration training. Although sensory processing and motor abnormalities are neither universal nor specific to autism, the prevalence of such abnormalities in autism is relatively high. There is, however, little controlled research on the effectiveness of interventions designed to address these abnormalities. Four objective outcome studies of sensory integration therapy were identified. These were of such small scale that no firm conclusions regarding efficacy could be made. No empirical studies of traditional occupational therapy in autism were found. Five studies of auditory integration training were found. Results of these studies provided no, or at best equivocal, support for the use of auditory integration training in autism.  相似文献
4.
Forecasting the behavior of multivariate time series using neural networks   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
This paper presents a neural network approach to multivariate time-series analysis. Real world observations of flour prices in three cities have been used as a benchmark in our experiments. Feedforward connectionist networks have been designed to model flour prices over the period from August 1972 to November 1980 for the cities of Buffalo, Minneapolis, and Kansas City. Remarkable success has been achieved in training the networks to learn the price curve for each of these cities and in making accurate price predictions. Our results show that the neural network approach is a leading contender with the statistical modeling approaches.  相似文献
5.
目的 探讨感觉统合训练治疗注意缺陷多动障碍的疗效及其可能的机制。方法 将1 2 6例注意缺陷多动障碍患儿按就诊顺序编号分为两组 ,奇数者为感觉统合训练 (训练组 ,63例 ) ,不应用任何药物 ;偶数者为匹莫林 [平均日剂量 (2 8 1± 9 3)mg]治疗 (匹莫林组 ,63例 ) ,开放治疗 1 2周。于治疗前和治疗后第 2 ,4,8,1 2周末进行Conners多动指数和儿童感觉统合能力评定 ,1 2周末用临床总体印象量表 (CGI)评定总体疗效。结果 治疗前训练组和匹莫林组多动指数分别为 (1 8 2± 4 3)分和 (1 8 3± 4 5)分 ,治疗后下降值为 (8 5± 4 9)分和 (8 9± 4 7)分 ,两组疗效近似 (P >0 0 5)。训练组和匹莫林组感觉统合能力增加值分别为 :前庭功能 (7 8± 6 6)分和 (0 9± 3 6)分 ,触觉防御 (8 5±7 6)分和 (0 6± 3 0 )分 ,本体感 (8 4± 8 8)分和 (0 5± 2 2 )分 ,学习能力 (6 4± 4 6)分和 (3 2± 2 5)分 ,前者显著优于后者 (P <0 0 1 )。训练组的多动指数下降值与感觉统合能力增加值均呈显著正相关(r>0 99,P <0 0 0 1 )。结论 感觉统合训练可通过纠正患儿的感觉统合能力低下而改善注意缺陷多动障碍的症状 ,疗效与匹莫林相当。  相似文献
6.
目的 探讨《技能训练程式》对精神分裂症患者康复的作用。方法 随机把133例出院精神分裂症患者分为技能训练组66例和对照组67例,技能训练组接受《技能训练程式》训练20周,而对照组行门诊常规治疗。随访2年,用自知力与治疗态度问卷(ITAQ)、治疗依从性评定、社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)、复发率和再次住院率来评定其效能。结果 训练组的ITAQ减分值、患者药物依从性减分值、SDSS减分值、复发率和再住院率均优于对照组。结论 《技能训练程式》对促进精神分裂症患者康复具有重要作用。  相似文献
7.
Neurotrophins are potent regulators of neuronal survival, maintenance, and synaptic strength. In particular, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acting through full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB(FL)), is implicated in the stimulation of neurotransmission. Physical activity has been reported to increase BDNF expression in the brain and spinal cord. In this study we have evaluated the hypothesis that activation of a spinal neuronal network, due to exercise, affects the entire spinal neurotrophin system acting via TrkB receptors by modulation of BDNF, neurotrophin 4 (NT-4), and their TrkB receptor proteins. We investigated the effect of treadmill walking (4 weeks, 1 km daily) on distribution patterns and response intensity of these proteins in the lumbar spinal cord of adult rats. Training enhanced immunoreactivity (IR) of both neurotrophins. BDNF IR increased in cell processes of spinal gray matter, mainly in dendrites. NT-4 IR was augmented in the white matter fibers, which were, in part, of astrocytic identity. Training strongly increased both staining intensity and number of TrkB(FL)-like IR small cells of the spinal gray matter. The majority of these small cells were oligodendrocytes, representing both their precursor and their mature forms. In contrast, training did not exert an effect on expression of the truncated form of TrkB receptor in the spinal cord. These results show that both neuronal and nonneuronal cells may be actively recruited to BDNF/NT-4/TrkB(FL) neurotrophin signaling which can be up-regulated by training. Oligodendrocytes of the spinal gray matter were particularly responsive to exercise, pointing to their involvement in activity-driven cross talk between neurons and glia.  相似文献
8.
Functional neurological outcome after transient ischemia might be improved by timely therapeutic intervention. To determine if restorative behavioral therapy influences damage, improves task learning, or alters astrocyte metabolic activity after ischemia, rats (food-restricted to 85% of free-feeding weight) were (a) first trained to respond on one of two levers under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of food presentation (FR20), then (b) subjected to sham manipulation of carotid arteries or 10 min ischemia by four-vessel occlusion, followed by (c) 4 days of operant testing or inactivity, (d) then all rats were tested under a FR20 lever reversal task for 4 weeks, and (e) 3 days after the last behavioral session astrocyte metabolism was assayed by local uptake of [2-14C]acetate. Mild loss of hippocampal neurons occurred in ischemic rats with or without training after ischemia. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes were present in similar numbers throughout brains of sham control and ischemic rats. Mild ischemia did not impair learning, and no changes in FR20 reversal learning were detected in sham vs. ischemic rats. Net [14C]acetate uptake was unaffected by ischemia but [14C]acetate uptake increased 15-24% (P<0.05; n=12-15/group) in specific structures (caudate, primary motor and sensorimotor cortex, CA1 hippocampus, subcortical white matter) in the pooled groups of rats that had 4 days FR20 testing vs. inactivity before reversal learning. 'Behavioral therapy' (operant testing on the 4 days immediately following either sham manipulation or ischemia) did not alter ischemic outcome, but was associated with higher acetate utilization in regions involved in motor activities.  相似文献
9.
The effect of visual training30 on the synapses in the visual cortex of rabbits was quantitatively investigated. The number, the size and the fine structural organization of synaptic grids were analyzed in 0.5 μm E-PTA sections. The size of the pre- and postsynaptic terminals, the length of the apposition zones, the number of synaptic vesicles per terminal, the dimensions of the synaptic cleft and postsynaptic density and the frequency of mitochondria and spine apparatuses were studied in conventional OsO4 sections.As compared to control animals, the synaptic population of visually trained rabbits exhibits 3 important changes:
1. (1) the number of complex grids has significantly increased; (perforated synapses according to refs. 6 and 24),
2. (2) the size of the synaptic grids has decreased. As is deduced from careful electron microscopic observations, this decrease in size is the result of a focalization of large grids.
3. (3) a significant increase in thickness of the postsynaptic density and a decrease in synaptic cleft is observed. The changes are most pronounced in deep layers (L IV and V) and are almost absent in superficial layers (L I).
On account of recent insights into the mechanism of synaptic transmission and of the intrinsic relation between the fine structural components of the synaptic junction and the process of transmitter release, the observed changes are interpreted as an expression of enhanced synaptic efficacy. It is further postulated that modification of synaptic efficacy must be considered as an important factor in the adaptation of the nervous system to changing environmental conditions and for the consolidation of memory traces.  相似文献
10.
With the new developments in traumatology medicine, the majority of spinal cord injuries sustained are clinically incomplete and the proportion is likely to continue to rise. Thus, it is necessary to continue to develop new treatment and rehabilitation strategies and understand the factors that can enhance recovery of walking following spinal cord injury (SCI). One new development is the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) device to assist locomotion. The objective of this review is to present findings from some recent studies on the effect of long-term locomotor training with FES in subjects with SCI. Promising results are shown in all outcome measures of walking, such as functional mobility, speed, spatio–temporal parameters, and the physiological cost of walking. Furthermore, the change in the walking behavior could be associated with plasticity in the CNS organization, as seen by the modification of the stretch reflex and changes in the corticospinal projection to muscles of the lower leg. In conclusion, recovery of walking is an increasing possibility for a large number of people with SCI. New modalities of treatment have become available for this population but most still need to be evaluated for their efficacy. This review has focused on FES assisted walking as a therapeutic modality in subjects with chronic SCI, but it is envisaged that the care and recovery of SCI in the early phase of recovery could also be improved.  相似文献
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