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1.
Rumination is a relatively rare, potentially fatal syndrome in infants. This article reviews the historical and current treatment of rumination. Two cases are presented: a six-month-old who narrowly escaped surgery when the disorder was not recognized, and a complicated case from the neonatology intensive care unit. Environmental changes and enhanced mothering are described as being critical to correction of rumination and appropriate weight gain.  相似文献
2.
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that depressed individuals engage in prolonged elaborative processing of emotional information. A computational neural network model of emotional information processing suggests this process involves sustained amygdala activity in response to processing negative features of information. This study examined whether brain activity in response to emotional stimuli was sustained in depressed individuals, even following subsequent distracting stimuli. METHODS: Seven depressed and 10 never-depressed individuals were studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during alternating 15-sec emotional processing (valence identification) and non-emotional processing (Sternberg memory) trials. Amygdala regions were traced on high-resolution structural scans and co-registered to the functional data. The time course of activity in these areas during emotional and non-emotional processing trials was examined. RESULTS: During emotional processing trials, never-depressed individuals displayed amygdalar responses to all stimuli, which decayed within 10 sec. In contrast, depressed individuals displayed sustained amygdala responses to negative words that lasted throughout the following non-emotional processing trials (25 sec later). The difference in sustained amygdala activity to negative and positive words was moderately related to self-reported rumination. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that depression is associated with sustained activity in brain areas responsible for coding emotional features.  相似文献
3.
The effect of nutritional level on the immunoreactivity of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in neurones of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was described in sheep, a ruminant, whose feeding strategy differs from that of monogastric species. Two groups of ewes were underfed (40%), or fed at maintenance (100%) for 167 days, after which one-half of each group was killed or ad libitum refed (at least 150% of maintenance) for 4 days before killing. The presence of CRH in the paraventricular nucleus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The number of CRH immunoreactive neurones was increased in underfed ewes, but without modification of the plasma concentration of cortisol, indicating that the rise of CRH was not released in the portal blood nor linked to the pituitary-adrenal axis. Refeeding did not modify significantly the number of CRH immunoreactive neurones in the nucleus although these neurones were increased, only in refed ewes that were previously underfed. These data differ from those for rats and mice where CRH expression is decreased or not modified by underfeeding which could reflect different effects of undernutrition on CRH immunoreactive neurones in monogastric compared to ruminants species.  相似文献
4.
The sensitivities of galanin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neuronal systems to nutrition are poorly understood in sheep compared to rodents. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in the numbers of galanin and MCH neurones in ovariectomized ewes submitted to different nutritional levels. In the first experiment, ewes were fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 h. In the second experiment, two groups of ewes were fed at maintenance level (group 100) or undernourished (group 40) for 167 days, after which one-half of each group was killed or refed ad libitum (group 100R and 40R) for 4 days. The MCH neuronal population located in the lateral hypothalamic area was not affected by these nutritional changes. Long-term undernutrition enhanced the number of galanin neurones located in the infundibular nucleus and the dorsal hypothalamic area (DHA), refeeding resulted in an increase of neurones in the DHA and preoptic area, but short-term starvation had no effect on any galanin subpopulations. Our data suggest that the sensitivity of MCH neuronal populations to nutrition in sheep differs from that of rodents. Various populations of galanin-containing neurones differ in sensitivity in ewes subjected to long undernutrition and refeeding but not to short starvation.  相似文献
5.
Several theories of the stress-disease link have now incorporated prolonged activation. This article argues that these theories still lack an important element, that is, the cognitive nature of the mechanism that causes stress responses to be sustained. The perception of stress and the initial response to it do not automatically lead to prolonged activation. The active cognitive representations of stressors need to be prolonged in order to extend their physiological concomitants. We call this mediating process perseverative cognition, and it is manifested in phenomena such as worry, rumination, and anticipatory stress. We summarize evidence suggesting that these phenomena are indeed associated with physiological activation, including cardiovascular, endocrinological and immunological parameters. This evidence is still far from sufficient, due to the many methodological insufficiencies in the studies involved. Nevertheless, it makes clear that cognitive phenomena characterized by perseverative cognition may be likely candidates to mediate the effects of stress sources on somatic disease.

We also argue that there is a dearth of evidence supporting the role of prolonged activation. There are a limited number of studies demonstrating prolonged activity related to stressors and emotional episodes, and their methodologies often do not allow unambiguous conclusions. Even more important, the crucial assumption that prolonged activation actually leads to pathogenic states and disease has received hardly any attention yet and therefore is still largely unsupported. There are only a few studies that showed that anticipatory responses and slow recovery from stress predicted disease states.  相似文献

6.
In order to react adequately to any new challenge, it is necessary to stop all ongoing activity. The first phase in the orienting response to a novel stimulus is an arrest of all ongoing activity. Inhibition is also necessary to switch from one behaviour to another, and from one cognitive activity to another. Inhibition was a difficult phenomenon to handle until the role of inhibitory synapses was demonstrated, and that many brain areas have an inhibitory function for overt behaviour and for establishing new responses in learning experiments. The role of these areas for learning and for plasticity of the brain has been well established. Recently, the role of inhibition, or lack of inhibition, for cognitive activities has been discussed for the understanding of somatization and sensitization to afferent somatic impulses. It has been postulated that muscle pain is maintained by positive feed back loops between muscles, the spinal cord, and the brain areas for pain and interpretation of pain. Activity in these loops may lead to sensitisation of the neural circuits, leading to chronic pain states. Similar models have been presented for non-specific gastric and intestinal complaints, and for fatigue and depression. Rumination and perseveration of negative thoughts may maintain the activity in these loops.  相似文献
7.
Rumination is considered a specific cognitive vulnerability factor that is thought to play a prominent role in the maintenance of depressive symptoms. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of two measures of rumination, the ruminative response scale (RRS) and the rumination on sadness scale (RSS) in undergraduates (N=331). A joint factor analysis yielded three factors, 'rumination on causes of sadness', 'symptom-based rumination', and 'rumination on sadness'. The internal consistency of the rumination factors was good and the test-retest stability over a 6-month period of time was moderate. Support was also found for the construct validity of the rumination factors. Finally, the 'rumination on the causes of sadness' factor was found to moderate the relation between depression measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. More specifically, baseline depression was a strong predictor of future depression but this was particularly true for high ruminating individuals. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided.  相似文献
8.
The use of combined positive and negative contingencies markedly reduced ruminative behavior in a severely mentally retarded, blind 20-year-old male residing in a residential treatment facility. A 95.4% decrease in rumination events occurred from baseline to follow-up. This procedure is offered as an effective and convenient treatment for chronic rumination.  相似文献
9.
The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes.  相似文献
10.
Perseverative cognition, as manifested in worry and rumination, is a common response to stress, but biopsychological models of stress and health have largely ignored it. These models have generally focused on physiological activation that occurs during stress and have insufficiently addressed effects that occur in anticipation of, or following, stressful events. We argue that perseverative cognition moderates the health consequences of stressors because it can prolong stress-related affective and physiological activation, both in advance of and following stressors. We review evidence that worry, rumination, and anticipatory stress are associated with enhanced cardiovascular, endocrinological, immunological, and neurovisceral activity. The findings yield preliminary support for our hypothesis, suggesting that perseverative cognition might act directly on somatic disease via enhance activation via the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and neurovisceral systems.  相似文献
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