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The term source monitoring refers to the ability to distinguish the origins of memories. One type of source monitoring is reality monitoring—which means distinguishing internally and externally generated memories. This experiment examined reality monitoring by children with autism (with a mean mental age of 7 years 8 months). The children said several words and listened to another person say similar words. The children were then given a surprise memory test and asked to identify which words they had said and which the other person had said. The children with autism were compared to matched groups of normal children and children with mental retardation. There were no differences between the groups and, at least for this task, there was no evidence that children with autism have a deficit in their reality monitoring abilities.  相似文献
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Patients with anterior limbic damage may present a distinct syndrome, spontaneous confabulation: they fail in common memory tests, act on the basis of previous habits rather than currently relevant memories, produce confabulations composed of elements of past true events, are disorientated, and are absolutely convinced about the veracity of their perceived reality. Spontaneous confabulation is independent of other false memories, such as, provoked confabulations or illusory recognition. Studies showed that spontaneous confabulators fail to suppress (inactivate) evoked memories that do not pertain to ongoing reality. Rehabilitation differs from other memory failures. Prognosis depends on the lesion site, but recovery is always associated with recovery of this suppression capacity. Lesions typically involve the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex or its connections in the basal forebrain. Imaging and evoked potential studies in healthy subjects support the idea that the anterior limbic system provides a reality monitoring mechanism which selects memories of current relevance by suppressing (inactivating) currently irrelevant memories. This mechanism appears to adjust the cortical representation of activated memories before their content is recognised and consolidated. Comparison with animal studies suggests that human reality monitoring is a property of the brain’s reward system.  相似文献
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Between 8 and 40% of Parkinson disease (PD) patients will have visual hallucinations (VHs) during the course of their illness. Although cognitive impairment has been identified as a risk factor for hallucinations, more specific neuropsychological deficits underlying such phenomena have not been established. Research in psychopathology has converged to suggest that hallucinations are associated with confusion between internal representations of events and real events (i.e. impaired-source monitoring). We evaluated three groups: 17 Parkinson's patients with visual hallucinations, 20 Parkinson's patients without hallucinations and 20 age-matched controls, using tests of visual imagery, visual perception and memory, including tests of source monitoring and recollective experience. The study revealed that Parkinson's patients with hallucinations appear to have intact visual imagery processes and spatial perception. However, there were impairments in object perception and recognition memory, and poor recollection of the encoding episode in comparison to both non-hallucinating Parkinson's patients and healthy controls. Errors were especially likely to occur when encoding and retrieval cues were in different modalities. The findings raise the possibility that visual hallucinations in Parkinson's patients could stem from a combination of faulty perceptual processing of environmental stimuli, and less detailed recollection of experience combined with intact image generation.  相似文献
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Persisting anosognosia after acute lesions is relatively rare, and no case studies to date have reported functional scanning investigation of this disorder. This is a case report of an 85-year-old right-handed Scottish woman, EN, who showed persistent anosognosia for hemiplegia following a haemorrhagic stroke. Extensive damage in the right hemisphere caused left upper and lower limb flaccid hemiplegia and severe left-sided neglect. Lack of awareness for her deficits was still present 2 years after the stroke, when neurological, neuropsychological, and SPECT examinations were performed. Testing revealed severe left unilateral neglect and poor performance on verbal fluency tasks. EN had age normal memory performance, and her object recognition and praxic abilities were preserved. She showed no global reasoning or language problems apart from her abnormal beliefs. EN believed that she was able to walk and carry out several activities, in a context of other disorders of belief. SPECT scan showed marked hypoperfusion in the right parietotemporal cortex and this extended to the associative cortex in the right frontal regions. The persistence of anosognosia in this patient cannot be explained by memory impairments or global cognitive decline. A possible account might be that alteration in awareness was maintained by contingent right frontal and/or parietal dysfunction causing a suspension or change in the ability to monitor and check the 'real' and especially to assess the veracity of mental contents.  相似文献
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The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) processes the occurrence or omission of anticipated rewards, but clinical evidence suggests that it might serve as a generic outcome monitoring system, independent of tangible reward. In this positron emission tomography (PET) study, normal human subjects performed a series of tasks in which they simply had to predict behind which one of two colored rectangles a drawing of an object was hidden. While all tasks involved anticipation in that they had an expectation phase between the subject's prediction and the presentation of the outcome, they varied with regards to the uncertainty of outcome. No comment on the correctness of the prediction, no record of ongoing performance, and no reward, not even a score, was provided. Nonetheless, we found strong activation of the OFC: in comparison with a baseline task, the left anterior medial OFC showed activation in all conditions, indicating a basic role in anticipation; the left posterior OFC was activated in all tasks with some uncertainty of outcome, suggesting a role in the monitoring of outcomes; the right medial OFC showed activation exclusively during guessing. The data indicate a generic role of the human OFC, with some topical specificity, in the generation of hypotheses and processing of outcomes, independent of the presence of explicit reward.  相似文献
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Rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to be involved in source memory, the ability to recollect contextual information about an event. However it is unclear whether subregions of rostral PFC may be differentially engaged during the recollection of different kinds of source detail. We used event related functional MRI to contrast two forms of source recollection: (1) recollection of whether stimuli had previously been perceived or imagined, and (2) recollection of which of two temporally distinct lists those stimuli had been presented in. Lateral regions of rostral PFC were activated in both tasks. However medial regions of rostral PFC were activated only when participants were required to recollect source information for self-generated, “imagined” stimuli, indicating a specific role in self-referential processing. In addition, reduced activity in a region of medial ventro-caudal PFC/basal forebrain was associated with making “imagined-to-perceived” confabulation errors. These results suggest that whilst the processing resources supported by some regions of lateral rostral PFC play a general role in source recollection, those supported by medial rostral PFC structures may be more specialised in their contributions.  相似文献
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