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Glutamate and glutamate receptors are well known to play a major excitatory role in the brain. Recent findings on ovarian steroids and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) activity on rat brain AMPA and NMDA receptors are reviewed. Ovarian steroid withdrawal by ovariectomy is without effect on NMDA and AMPA receptors in most brain regions, except in hippocampus, where it decreases NMDA receptor specific binding, compared to intact rat values. Estradiol treatment increases hippocampal NMDA receptor specific binding of ovariectomized rats while it decreases this binding in frontal cortex and striatum. Estradiol treatment has no effect on AMPA receptor specific binding in hippocampus, but decreases binding in frontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens. Progesterone and estradiol+progesterone treatments decrease NMDA, but not AMPA receptors specific binding in frontal cortex compared to ovariectomized rats. No effect was observed in other brain regions. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are SERMs with varying effects on estrogen responses in mammary, bone and uterine tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have estrogenic activity upon modulation of brain NMDA and AMPA receptors. Using specific ligands for binding autoradiography of NMDA receptor subunits and specific probes for subunits measured by in situ hybridization, it was shown that estradiol and SERMs modulate NR1 and NR2B subunits whereas the NR1/2A subunit remains unchanged. In summary, regional agonist estrogenic activity on brain AMPA and NMDA receptors of tamoxifen and raloxifene, like that of estradiol, is observed, whereas progesterone has limited effects or opposes the estradiol effect.  相似文献
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INTRODUCTION: We have recently reported that different hormone regimens given to healthy post-menopausal women had markedly different effects on activation of coagulation. Low-dose hormone therapy (HT) and raloxifene, as opposed to conventional-dose HT and tibolone, were associated with no or minor activation of coagulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) for differences in coagulation activation by analysing clotting and fibrinolytic factors and coagulation inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 202 healthy women were randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with either low dose HT containing 1 mg 17 beta-estradiol+0.5 mg norethisterone acetate (NETA) (n=50), conventional dose HT containing 2 mg 17 beta-estradiol and 1 mg NETA (n=50), 2.5 mg tibolone (n=51), or 60 mg raloxifene (n=51) in an open-label design. RESULTS: The conventional-and low-dose HT groups generally showed similar effects, i.e., reductions in both clotting factors and inhibitors, but the effects were markedly more pronounced in the conventional-dose HT group. Compared with the low-dose HT group those treated with tibolone showed more pronounced decreases in factor VII, less reduction of antithrombin and protein C and even increased levels in protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. As opposed to the low-dose HT group the reductions in inhibitors in the raloxifene group were smaller. Moreover in those allocated to raloxifene reduced levels of fibrinogen were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the different HT regimens and raloxifene exert differential effects on coagulation factors, inhibitors and fibrinolytic factors.  相似文献
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Introduction

Estrogen therapy (ET), tamoxifen and raloxifene are associated with a two- to three-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT); however, the mechanisms by which each drug increases venous thrombosis propensity are not fully understood. The objectives of this investigation were to compare the effects of these three treatments on hemostasis in a head to head randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Patients/methods

Ninety-four postmenopausal women were assigned to receive oral estrogen (conjugated equine estrogen [CEE] 0.625 mg, n=23), tamoxifen 20 mg (n=24), raloxifene 60 mg (n=24) or placebo (n=23) daily for 6 months. Blood samples were analyzed for procoagulant factors (prothrombin, factors VII [fVII], VIII [fVIII], IX [fIX] and XI [fXI], D-dimer and von Willebrand factor [vWf]), anticoagulant factors (antithrombin [AT], total and free protein S, protein C and activated protein C [APC] resistance) and fibrinolytic factors (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor [TAFI] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), at baseline and at 6 months of treatment.

Results

Estrogen increased factor VII and D-dimer, and decreased antithrombin, total and free protein S and PAI-1. Changes with tamoxifen were distinct from estrogen with increases in factors VIII, IX, vWf and free protein S, and decreases in AT, total protein S, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Raloxifene produced similar effects as tamoxifen, but did not increase factor IX or decrease protein C.

Conclusions

Estrogen, tamoxifen and raloxifene affected hemostasis favoring procoagulation and impairing anticoagulation. The biochemical effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were distinct from those of estrogen and differed only subtly from each other.  相似文献
4.
The current study investigated the estrogen agonist-antagonist properties of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene (Ral), on neuroprotection and neuronal markers of memory function. Low concentrations of raloxifene significantly reduced basal markers of membrane damage and had no deleterious effect on neuronal survival. However, high concentrations of raloxifene (1000-5000 ng/ml) induced a significant increase in markers of membrane damage and a significant decrease in neuronal survival. At subtoxic concentrations, raloxifene induced significant neuroprotection against beta amyloid(25-35)-, hydrogen peroxide- and glutamate-induced toxicity. Results of analyses to determine whether raloxifene acted competitively or synergistically with 17 beta-estradiol revealed that a postmenopausal level of 17 beta-estradiol exerted a significantly greater increase in neuronal survival against beta-amyloid- and glutamate-induced toxicity compared to 50 ng/ml raloxifene. The combined presence of raloxifene and 17 beta-estradiol was significantly neuroprotective against beta amyloid(25-35)- and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity but was significantly lower than 17 beta-estradiol alone while not significantly different than raloxifene alone. Morphologic analyses demonstrated that raloxifene significantly increased neuronal outgrowth of hippocampal neurons within a narrow dose range that was blocked by a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist. Raloxifene did not promote the outgrowth of basal forebrain or cortical neurons. Results of this study indicate that raloxifene exerted partial estrogen agonist action in the absence of 17 beta-estradiol whereas in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol, raloxifene exerted a mixed estrogen agonist-antagonist effect.  相似文献
5.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) demonstrate tissue-specific estrogen receptor (ER) agonist or antagonist properties. Raloxifene, a prototypical SERM, has ER agonist properties in bone and on cholesterol metabolism but full antagonist properties in the uterus and breast. To characterize the ER agonist/antagonist profile of raloxifene in the brain, we have examined its effect on the activity of a known estrogen-responsive gene product, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), in the hippocampus and other brain regions of 6-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague–Dawley rats. Three weeks post-ovariectomy, animals received estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.03 mg or 0.3 mg kg-1 day-1 for 3 or 10 days); raloxifene HCl (3.0 mg kg-1 day-1 for 3 or 10 days), tamoxifen (3.0 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 days) or vehicle (20% CDX). As previously reported, ChAT activity decreased by approximately 20%–50% in the hippocampus of OVX compared with SHAM-operated control rats with no change in ChAT activity observed in the hypothalamus. Raloxifene or EB reversed the OVX-induced decrease in ChAT activity in the hippocampus but did not change ChAT activity in the hypothalamus. Animals that received combined EB (0.03 mg/kg) plus raloxifene (1 mg/kg) or tamoxifen alone (3.0 or 10 mg/kg) also showed increased hippocampal ChAT activity. Raloxifene failed to increase uterine weight and blocked the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight, while another SERM, tamoxifen, increased uterine weight. These data demonstrate that raloxifene has estrogen-like properties on hippocampal ChAT activity in vivo, and suggest that benzothiophene SERMs may exert estrogen-like beneficial effects on cholinergic neurotransmission in brain without producing peripheral stimulation of breast or uterine tissue.  相似文献
6.
Estradiol has antidepressive and anxiolytic actions. However, its therapeutic use is limited by its peripheral effects. Selective estrogen receptor modulators may represent an alternative to estradiol for the treatment of depressive symptoms. Here we report that tamoxifen and raloxifene decrease immobility time in the forced swim test and increases the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze in ovariectomized mice submitted to chronic unpredictable stress.  相似文献
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8.
Estrogen receptor modulators are compounds of interest because of their estrogenic agonistic/antagonis-tic effects and tissue specificity. These compounds have many clinical applications, particularly for breast cancer treatment and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as for the treatment of climacter-ic symptoms. Similar to estrogens, neuroprotective effects of estrogen receptor modulators have been described in different models. However, the mechanisms of action of these compounds in the central nervous system have not been fully described. We conducted a systematic search to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor modulators in the central nervous system, focusing on the modulation of cytoskeletal proteins. We found that raloxifene, tamoxifen, and tibolone modulate some cytoskeletal proteins such as tau, microtuble-associated protein 1 (MAP1), MAP2, neurofilament 38 (NF38) by different mechanisms of action and at different levels: neuronal microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubule-associated proteins. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the study of these compounds in the treatment of neuro-degenerative diseases since they present the benefits of estrogens without their side effects.  相似文献
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