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Abstract: Psychometric properties of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) were explored using the Japanese data collected in various settings. A six- or seven-factor structure emerged for the entire sample and each gender and age-group divided into a 10-year interval. The factors were highly identical across the subsamples. The main four factors showed a high agreement with those of UK and Hong Kong studies: approximately 80% of the items were similarly allocated to factors. However, the response endorsement of two "loss of positive attitude" items was much common regardless of the score level. These items counted up approximately one-fourths of the score, so that these items made the score spuriously higher. Accordingly, a question arose as to whether these items should be included in the scale for its use in Japanese.  相似文献
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The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), a new measure of depressive symptom severity derived from the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), is available in both self-report (QIDS-SR(16)) and clinician-rated (QIDS-C(16)) formats.This report evaluates and compares the psychometric properties of the QIDS-SR(16) in relation to the IDS-SR(30) and the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D(24)) in 596 adult outpatients treated for chronic nonpsychotic, major depressive disorder.Internal consistency was high for the QIDS-SR(16) (Cronbach's alpha =.86), the IDS-SR(30) (Cronbach's alpha =.92), and the HAM-D(24) (Cronbach's alpha =.88). QIDS-SR(16) total scores were highly correlated with IDS-SR(30) (.96) and HAM-D(24) (.86) total scores. Item-total correlations revealed that several similar items were highly correlated with both QIDS-SR(16) and IDS-SR(30) total scores. Roughly 1.3 times the QIDS-SR(16) total score is predictive of the HAM-D(17) (17-item version of the HAM-D) total score.The QIDS-SR(16) was as sensitive to symptom change as the IDS-SR(30) and HAM-D(24), indicating high concurrent validity for all three scales. The QIDS-SR(16) has highly acceptable psychometric properties, which supports the usefulness of this brief rating of depressive symptom severity in both clinical and research settings.  相似文献
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OBJECTIVE: Self-efficacy is an important determinant of health behaviour and reflects a person's belief about their capability to complete a given task. The relationship between self-efficacy and fluid adherence has been investigated, although limited attention has been given to measurement issues. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of situation-specific self-efficacy for constructive fluid intake behaviour in haemodialysis patients, the Fluid Intake Appraisal Inventory (FIAI). METHODS: Items were generated from an analysis of empirical studies available in the literature and exposed to an interpretability critique before haemodialysis patients confirmed sufficiency of each item. In a multi-centre study, data from 144 haemodialysis patients were collected regarding general self-efficacy, situation-specific self-efficacy, and estimated fluid consumption. Internal consistency, criterion-related validity, and structural validity were tested. RESULTS: The FIAI was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.96) and the theoretical assumptions for criterion-related validity and known-group validity were supported. Structural validity was not confirmed, however, because the theoretically hypothesized four-factor model was not the prime structure. CONCLUSION: The FIAI was revealed to have satisfactory psychometric properties. The scale may be used in research or in clinical settings to study the mediating effects of self-efficacy or to modify haemodialysis patients' fluid-intake behaviour. Although this first validity study is promising, further validation focusing on reliability and cultural validity is needed.  相似文献
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The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Psycho-educational Profile-Revised (PEP-R). The Chinese PEP-R (CPEP-R) was administered to 63 preschool children with symptoms of autistic disorder recruited from special child-care centers in Hong Kong. Results showed that the scales of the CPEP-R were internally consistent, reliable across raters and temporally stable. Regarding the concurrent validity of the CPEP-R, the developmental score and developmental age assessed by the CPEP-R were significantly correlated with the Merrill–Palmer Scale of Mental Tests and the Hong Kong Based Adaptive Behavior Scale. The Behavioral Scale of the CPEP-R was also significantly related to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Besides replicating the findings in the Western context, the present study suggests that the psychometric properties of the PEP-R are stable across cultures and the related findings support the cross-cultural reliability of the tool.  相似文献
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A Japanese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), AQ-J was administered to 25 normally intelligent high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (HPDD) patients (mean age, 24.2 years; 24 male, one female) and 215 controls (mean age, 30.4 years; 86 male, 129 female) randomly selected from the general population. The AQ-J had satisfactory internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70 in the two groups), test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity [i.e. the AQ-J score was significantly higher in the HPDD (mean, 29.6) than controls (mean, 22.2)]. At a cut-off of 26, the AQ-J had satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, but it had low positive predictive value (0.24) possibly due to the facts that the 25 mild HPDD patients scored lower and the controls scored higher on the AQ-J than British counterparts on the AQ. The AQ-J-21 (consisting of 21 items significantly associated with HPDD diagnosis) and the AQ-J-10 (consisting of 10 of the 21 items with an effect size > 0.17) had higher, although not satisfactory, positive predictive values of 0.35 and 0.46 at cut-offs of 12 and 7, respectively, than the AQ-J. The AQ-J and two short forms are useful not to predict but to rule out mild HPDD, the most difficult part of HPDD to be distinguished from non-PDD conditions, in persons scoring under the cut-offs and to consider professionals' examination of HPDD in persons scoring over them, because their negative predictive values were satisfactory.  相似文献
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Rumination is considered a specific cognitive vulnerability factor that is thought to play a prominent role in the maintenance of depressive symptoms. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of two measures of rumination, the ruminative response scale (RRS) and the rumination on sadness scale (RSS) in undergraduates (N=331). A joint factor analysis yielded three factors, 'rumination on causes of sadness', 'symptom-based rumination', and 'rumination on sadness'. The internal consistency of the rumination factors was good and the test-retest stability over a 6-month period of time was moderate. Support was also found for the construct validity of the rumination factors. Finally, the 'rumination on the causes of sadness' factor was found to moderate the relation between depression measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. More specifically, baseline depression was a strong predictor of future depression but this was particularly true for high ruminating individuals. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided.  相似文献
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OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the modified Coping Checklist. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires asking about coping responses and mental health were administered to 515 undergraduate university students and to 119 patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (PCA) were used to summarize and describe coping responses. RESULTS: CFA indicated that the subscale structure originally proposed for the Coping Checklist did not adequately fit the data. Subsequent PCA resulted in four factors: (1) Positive reappraisal; (2) Seeking support; (3) Avoidance; and (4) Information seeking. Internal consistencies ranged between .41 and .62 and 12-week test-retest reliability ranged between .59 and .71. Evidence for the concurrent validity of the solution generated by PCA was demonstrated by low to moderate correlations between the four factors identified and demographic and psychosocial measures. CONCLUSION: Even with modifications to the Coping Checklist, it is recommended that researchers investigate alternative methods of assessing coping responses in health psychology settings.  相似文献
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Abstract Background The finding of variation in the optimal threshold of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) across different settings has proved difficult to explain. This analysis aimed to examine the optimal threshold of the GHQ, its variability and relationship with prevalence of psychiatric disorder. Methods A cross–sectional two–phase epidemiological survey was used in a study of non–psychotic psychiatric disorder of General Practice consulters. A total of 1670 consecutive patients were screened using the GHQ–28 and the GP encounter form, and 336 were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). The total prevalence of the psychiatric disorders was estimated using three different methods and was calculated in the rural and urban practices and among those attending the General Practitioners and Practice Nurses. Results The frequency distribution of the GHQ score for the whole sample of respondents was skewed resulting in the biased mean GHQ score. The mean values for different sample categories were found to be higher than the median values indicating that the median GHQ score may be a better parameter to describe the score distribution than the mean. The median value of the GHQ score showed a strong correlation with the prevalence estimated by the three different methods. Conclusions The median of GHQ score gives a better estimate for the cut–off score than the mean. The median score may be used as an estimate for the optimal threshold, in settings where the sensitivity and specificity are not known or where an estimate of the prevalence from a questionnaire survey is required. Alternative methods are preferable when screening for individual cases or in the context of a two–phase design.  相似文献
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