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1.
Epilepsy, psychiatry, and neurology   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
This article reviews the relationship between the psychiatry and neurology of epilepsy, especially in the last 100 years. Throughout most of its recorded history of 3 to 4 millennia epilepsy has been viewed as a supernatural or mental disorder. Although first suggested by Hippocrates in the 5th century B.C., the concept of epilepsy as a brain disorder only began to take root in the 17th and 18th centuries. The discipline of neurology emerged from "nervous disorders" or neuropsychiatry in the late 19th century, when vascular theories of epilepsy predominated. By the turn of the 19th century psychiatry and neurology were diverging and epilepsy remained to some extent in both disciplines. It was only in the middle of the 20th century with the development of electromagnetic theories of epilepsy that the concept of epilepsy per se as a neurological disorder was finally adopted in international classifications of disease. This was associated with a refined definition of the ictal, pre-, post-, and interictal psychological disorders of epilepsy, which have contributed to a renaissance of neuropsychiatry. At the beginning of the 21st century and the centenary of the ILAE psychiatry and neurology have been converging again, led in some respects by epilepsy, which has provided several useful models of mental illness and a bridge between the two disciplines.  相似文献
2.
精神科护士的心理状态及个性特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:3  
目的探讨精神科护士的心理健康水平及个性结构特征。方法采用临床症状自评量表(SCL-90)和艾森克问卷(EPQ)对84例精神科护士的心理状况及个性结构评估,单纯随机抽出普通护士84例为对照组。结果精神科护士健康水平明显低于对照组,以焦虑、抑郁、强迫、躯体化、恐惧为主,个性特征中神经质、内向性、稳定性、掩饰性均高于对照组。结论精神科护士的心理水平较低,有明显的神经质倾向,情绪不稳定,需要进行有效心理干预。  相似文献
3.
Abstract: A one-year survey was conducted on the psychiatric consultation work at Kyushu University Hospital. It was found that an organic brain syndrome was the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis of the referred patients. The most frequent purpose of request for psychiatric consultations was for the management of the patient. The main consultant functions were diagnoses and to advise on the management of the patient. The consultant functions agreed with the purposes of request in many cases, but discrepancies between the two were found about the patient disposition. The nature of the consultant role was compared with some American studies. It was deemed necessary that consultation-liaison psychiatry based on Japan's present conditions, medical and social, should be developed.  相似文献
4.
Teaching a biopsychosocial approach on medical attending rounds   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
The ascent of the biotechnical, disease-oriented model of medicine threatens to relegate the integrated, patient-oriented approach to a secondary position. In response to this, a program to teach medical housestaff a biopsychosocial approach was implemented in a setting of attending rounds by having a psychiatrist participate regularly as a member of the rounding team. The effectiveness of this program's teaching effort was significantly influenced by the psychological styles and level of training of the housestaff officers. Residents were the most teachable and potentially the most effective teachers with respect to the biopsychosocial model. Interns, appearing to respond to the stresses of internship with defensive behavior, e.g., turning passive into active and isolation of affect, were less receptive. The medical attending's attitude, however, was the most important factor affecting the teaching of this approach on rounds. Three medical-attending-teaching styles were characterized, one of which appeared incompatible with teaching a biopsychosocial approach on rounds. The psychiatrist had to learn to specifically adapt his teaching efforts to each of these three attending styles, as well as to the training level related needs and the defensive styles of the housestaff.  相似文献
5.
精神发育迟滞的性犯罪和性受害分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:3  
作者分析了精神发育迟滞(MR)中58例性犯罪和79例性受害的特征:年龄多数处于青春期,农民占50%以上,单独犯罪、累犯和以熟人为作案对象者较多。MR性犯罪者以男性,兴奋型为主,强奸案居多。性受害者年龄偏幼,除1例外全为女性,安定型占优势。  相似文献
6.
Application of the relaxation technique in general hospital psychiatry   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Abstract The present article demonstrates the clinical application and the efficacy of relaxation techniques in general hospital psychiatry in Japan. During April to December 1993, 20 patients were treated with progressive muscle relaxation and 'modified' autogenic training therapies. The targeted symptoms were anxiety attacks (or panic attacks), neurotic insomnia, hyperventilation syndrome, agoraphobia, chronic pain, and distress. Most patients (18/20) improved rapidly with the use of these techniques and their excellence encourages increased use in general hospital psychiatry for the following reasons. First, physically ill patients are likely to show unexpected reactions to psychotropic medications. Second, some patients prefer these treatment methods rather than medications because they feel that they are participating voluntarily in their own treatment and also because they are fearful of being addicted to tranquilizers. Third, these treatments have produced rapid improvement especially for patients with panic attacks and/or hyperventilation. This study strongly suggests that progressive muscle relaxation and 'modified' autogenic training are simple and useful methods which can be easily employed in the clinical practice of general hospital psychiatry.  相似文献
7.
Has deinstitutionalization gone too far?   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:2  
Modern social psychiatry is aiming at integration of the mentally disordered in the community instead of institutionalization – with or without institutions. No doubt, the majority of mentally disordered patients have benefitted greatly from deinstitutionalized psychiatry. Unfortunately, in the implementation of deinstitutionalized psychiatry, there has widely been a gap between the closure of the mental hospitals and the building up of the decentralized services. Instead of organizing decentralized services and then gradually reducing the capacity of hospital treatment, things happened in many places the other way around. With data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Case Register, the author documents a series of negative indicators that have appeared parallel with the deinstitutionalization process. · 100% increase in standard mortality rate of suicides for non-organic psychotic patients · an exponential increase of 6.7% annually in number of criminal mentally disordered · increase in coercive activities in the wards several hundred per cent for some of the measures · increase in bed occupancy rate from approximately 80% to 100% · Acute admission rates between 85% and 90% · No signs of reduction in 1 year readmission rate of first time diagnosed schizophrenics from the very stable 45%–50% which has been seen for almost 20 years. Beyond any doubt, social psychiatric rehabilitation is needed. An increase in the capacity in the psychiatric services and fitting of the treatment models to the patients’ needs so that the negative aspects we have seen can be properly handled must be on top of the agenda in the next few years.  相似文献
8.
Psychiatric Disorders Before and After Surgery for Epilepsy   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:4  
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