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1.
精神科护士的心理状态及个性特征   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
目的探讨精神科护士的心理健康水平及个性结构特征。方法采用临床症状自评量表(SCL-90)和艾森克问卷(EPQ)对84例精神科护士的心理状况及个性结构评估,单纯随机抽出普通护士84例为对照组。结果精神科护士健康水平明显低于对照组,以焦虑、抑郁、强迫、躯体化、恐惧为主,个性特征中神经质、内向性、稳定性、掩饰性均高于对照组。结论精神科护士的心理水平较低,有明显的神经质倾向,情绪不稳定,需要进行有效心理干预。  相似文献
2.
精神科与综合科医护人员心理健康水平状况调查   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
目的了解医疗机构医护人员心理健康状况,以及精神科与综合科医护人员之间心理健康水平有无差异。方法采用SCL-90症状自评量表及一般情况问卷,对我院及社区卫生服务中心在职医护人员共115人进行调查。结果受调查医护人员总体心理健康水平优于中国常模(P〈0.05),社区卫生服务中心心理健康水平优于精神卫生中心(P〈0.05)。受调查医护人员24.35%存在不同程度的心理问题,不同工作年限之间有显著差异(P〈0.05)。结论医护人员的心理健康状况良好,可能与医护人员医学心理学知识的掌握与应用,处理心理压力源的效度提高有关。而精神科医护人员由于服务对象的特殊性及社会对精神科服务价值的低认可,导致心理压力过大,总体心理健康水平低于综合科。  相似文献
3.
The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on animal models of unselected subjects (i.e. natural variance of a specific behaviour within a given population) and selected breeding for a specific behaviour. Accordingly, an outline of the personality model from Gray and McNaughton of individual behaviour in animals is given first. Then, a comprehensive overview of past and current animal models in novelty-seeking (i.e. psychomotor activation and exploration behaviour) based on systematic individual differences and its relationship to addiction is presented. Third, this will be followed by a comprehensive overview of individual differences in previous and present animal models for anxiety. Finally, critical aspects of such approaches in animal research are discussed, and suggestions are given where to go from here.  相似文献
4.
62例旅途性精神病司法鉴定分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
目的探讨旅途性精神病犯罪行为的特点及原因。方法对62例旅途性精神病的卷宗及临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果被鉴定人均系边远地区的务工者,犯罪行为性质以暴力凶杀为主,作案特点多为突然发生,动机不明,无预谋,被害人多为同车旅客或一般路人,与被鉴定人素不相识。作案工具大多为随身携带的劳动工具或即景物件。被鉴定人作案当时均有不同程度的意识障碍、关系妄想、被害妄想和错幻觉。结论旅途性精神病多为暴力犯罪行为,这与其精神病理症状的特点有关,也与该群体所处社会地位有一定关联。  相似文献
5.
综合医院精神科急会诊与普通会诊的比较   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
目的探讨综合医院精神科急会诊与普通会诊的特征差异。方法2007年度申请精神科会诊的病例279例,分析申请科室、原发病、申请理由、精神科诊断处理,比较急会诊与普通会诊的差异。结果综合医院精神病学急会诊主要为脑器质性精神障碍及躯体疾病所致精神障碍(75%~85%),普通会诊以抑郁障碍、焦虑障碍及神经症为主。结论应在综合医院积极开展会诊-联络精神病学服务,急会诊与普通会诊的诊断差异有助于精神科会诊临床实践。  相似文献
6.
Abstract: A one-year survey was conducted on the psychiatric consultation work at Kyushu University Hospital. It was found that an organic brain syndrome was the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis of the referred patients. The most frequent purpose of request for psychiatric consultations was for the management of the patient. The main consultant functions were diagnoses and to advise on the management of the patient. The consultant functions agreed with the purposes of request in many cases, but discrepancies between the two were found about the patient disposition. The nature of the consultant role was compared with some American studies. It was deemed necessary that consultation-liaison psychiatry based on Japan's present conditions, medical and social, should be developed.  相似文献
7.
Teaching a biopsychosocial approach on medical attending rounds   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
The ascent of the biotechnical, disease-oriented model of medicine threatens to relegate the integrated, patient-oriented approach to a secondary position. In response to this, a program to teach medical housestaff a biopsychosocial approach was implemented in a setting of attending rounds by having a psychiatrist participate regularly as a member of the rounding team. The effectiveness of this program's teaching effort was significantly influenced by the psychological styles and level of training of the housestaff officers. Residents were the most teachable and potentially the most effective teachers with respect to the biopsychosocial model. Interns, appearing to respond to the stresses of internship with defensive behavior, e.g., turning passive into active and isolation of affect, were less receptive. The medical attending's attitude, however, was the most important factor affecting the teaching of this approach on rounds. Three medical-attending-teaching styles were characterized, one of which appeared incompatible with teaching a biopsychosocial approach on rounds. The psychiatrist had to learn to specifically adapt his teaching efforts to each of these three attending styles, as well as to the training level related needs and the defensive styles of the housestaff.  相似文献
8.
精神发育迟滞的性犯罪和性受害分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:3  
作者分析了精神发育迟滞(MR)中58例性犯罪和79例性受害的特征:年龄多数处于青春期,农民占50%以上,单独犯罪、累犯和以熟人为作案对象者较多。MR性犯罪者以男性,兴奋型为主,强奸案居多。性受害者年龄偏幼,除1例外全为女性,安定型占优势。  相似文献
9.
Application of the relaxation technique in general hospital psychiatry   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Abstract The present article demonstrates the clinical application and the efficacy of relaxation techniques in general hospital psychiatry in Japan. During April to December 1993, 20 patients were treated with progressive muscle relaxation and 'modified' autogenic training therapies. The targeted symptoms were anxiety attacks (or panic attacks), neurotic insomnia, hyperventilation syndrome, agoraphobia, chronic pain, and distress. Most patients (18/20) improved rapidly with the use of these techniques and their excellence encourages increased use in general hospital psychiatry for the following reasons. First, physically ill patients are likely to show unexpected reactions to psychotropic medications. Second, some patients prefer these treatment methods rather than medications because they feel that they are participating voluntarily in their own treatment and also because they are fearful of being addicted to tranquilizers. Third, these treatments have produced rapid improvement especially for patients with panic attacks and/or hyperventilation. This study strongly suggests that progressive muscle relaxation and 'modified' autogenic training are simple and useful methods which can be easily employed in the clinical practice of general hospital psychiatry.  相似文献
10.
Has deinstitutionalization gone too far?   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:2  
Modern social psychiatry is aiming at integration of the mentally disordered in the community instead of institutionalization – with or without institutions. No doubt, the majority of mentally disordered patients have benefitted greatly from deinstitutionalized psychiatry. Unfortunately, in the implementation of deinstitutionalized psychiatry, there has widely been a gap between the closure of the mental hospitals and the building up of the decentralized services. Instead of organizing decentralized services and then gradually reducing the capacity of hospital treatment, things happened in many places the other way around. With data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Case Register, the author documents a series of negative indicators that have appeared parallel with the deinstitutionalization process. · 100% increase in standard mortality rate of suicides for non-organic psychotic patients · an exponential increase of 6.7% annually in number of criminal mentally disordered · increase in coercive activities in the wards several hundred per cent for some of the measures · increase in bed occupancy rate from approximately 80% to 100% · Acute admission rates between 85% and 90% · No signs of reduction in 1 year readmission rate of first time diagnosed schizophrenics from the very stable 45%–50% which has been seen for almost 20 years. Beyond any doubt, social psychiatric rehabilitation is needed. An increase in the capacity in the psychiatric services and fitting of the treatment models to the patients’ needs so that the negative aspects we have seen can be properly handled must be on top of the agenda in the next few years.  相似文献
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