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1.
Rats were habituated to ad lib food intake from two isoenergetic diets that differed in carbohydrate and protein content. To examine the route of administration effect, buspirone (0.6, 1.0, and 1.4 mg/kg) was injected into satiated rats either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. Overall, no route of administration effect was observed; however, when results of the lowest dose were analyzed separately, the subcutaneous route was more effective than the intraperitoneal route. Regardless of route of administration, buspirone increased food intake over the first 2 h of food presentation in a dosedependent manner. Moreover, the increase was entirely attributed to increases in intake from the high carbohydrate diet. In the subsequent experiment, the effect of buspirone (0.6 mg/kg) was examined in both satiated (early light period) and nonsatiated rats (early dark period). Both groups responded to buspirone with an increase in carbohydrate intake. Despite differences in baseline intake, the absolute increase was similar between satiated and nonsatiated rats. These data suggest that both sensitivity and selectivity of buspirone-induced feeding are neither influenced by route of administration nor nutritional status of rats.  相似文献
2.
In this observational study of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) admitted to a regional neurology centre we assessed the frequency of dysphagia (objectively defined), dysphagia related symptoms, bulbar signs and nutritional status. We studied 79 consecutive admissions with MS (24 at diagnostic admission and 55 more advanced cases admitted for treatment and/or rehabilitation): normative swallowing data were from 181 healthy controls. Swallowing symptoms and signs were semi-quantitatively measured and compared to healthy controls. Dysphagia was defined by a quantitative water test. Disability was determined by Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale and Barthel’s index. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, estimated percentage body fat from skin fold thickness measurements at four sites, a global evaluation of nutrition, the presence of pressure sores and the pressure sore risk using the Waterlow score. Patients with MS were more likely to complain of abnormal swallowing, of coughing when eating, and of food ‘going down the wrong way’ than healthy controls (P < 0.005). These significantly associated symptoms had high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. 43% of patients had abnormal swallowing, almost half of whom did not complain of it: abnormal swallowing was associated with several factors including abnormal brainstem/cerebellar function, disability, vital capacity, and depression score. Those with abnormal swallowing had higher Waterlow scores (P < 0.001), but, overall, abnormal swallowing was not associated with a difference in nutritional indices or incidence of pressure sores. In summary, abnormal swallowing is common in MS although often not complained of. It is associated with disordered brainstem/cerebellar function, overall disability, depressed mood and low vital capacity. It was not associated with major nutritional failure or pressure sores in this study. Received: 16 June 1998 Received in revised form: 29 October 1998 Accepted: 19 January 1999  相似文献
3.
The aim of the study was to analyse swallowing function and to identify reliable prognostic factors associated with dysphagia in a consecutive series of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Swallowing examination was performed by means of indirect and direct methods (fiberendoscopic evaluation) in 143 consecutive patients with primary and secondary progressive MS. Dysphagia was found in 49 patients (34.3%). A close relationship with dysphagia was found in the patients with severe brainstem impairment (OR=3.24; 95% CI 1.44-7.31) as compared to the patients without. There was also a significant correlation with pronounced severity of illness (OR=2.99; CI 1.36-6.59). Compensatory strategies were sufficient to resolve the dysphagia in 46 cases (93.8%). The potential risk of aspiration and malnutrition and the high efficacy of swallowing rehabilitation suggests that all MS patients should have a careful evaluation of deglutition functionality, especially those with brainstem impairment and a high grade of disability level.  相似文献
4.
Leptin action in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in maintaining normal food intake and body weight. Hyperleptinaemia is associated with obesity in humans and animal models, suggesting a state of leptin resistance. Although the mechanism of leptin resistance is not clearly understood, alterations in leptin receptor (Ob-R) gene expression have been proposed as a potential mechanism mediating modifications in leptin action in obesity and during changes in nutritional status (fed/fasted). The current study examined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) made by feeding rats a high fat diet for 9 weeks, and nutritional status on levels of long form (Ob-Rb) and total (Ob-Rtot) Ob-R mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. In the fed state, hypothalamic Ob-Rb mRNA and Ob-Rtot mRNA levels were similar in DIO and control standard chow fed rats (SC) despite hyperleptinaemia in DIO rats. However, although an overnight fast moderately increased hypothalamic Ob-Rb mRNA levels in SC rats, fasting did not increase Ob-Rb mRNA levels in DIO rats. To address the possibility that elevated leptin concentration in DIO rats may mediate an alteration in OB-R mRNA levels, we examined the effects of adenovirus-mediated hyperleptinaemia on Ob-R gene expression in SC rats. Despite substantially elevated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of leptin, hypothalamic Ob-R mRNA levels were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that DIO is associated with a loss of nutritional regulation of hypothalamic Ob-R mRNA levels, and that hyperleptinaemia is not sufficient to alter Ob-R mRNA expression.  相似文献
5.
目的 评价联合营养管理措施对重症脑卒中患者营养状况、并发症及近期预后的影响.方法 90例重症脑卒中患者按照数字随机表法分为对照组48例和观察组42例.在早期肠内营养支持基础上,观察组由护士联合医师、营养师和康复师组成团队实施联合营养管理,对照组由护士按照营养师医嘱进行,评估入院后第1天和第21天2组营养指标血红蛋白(Hb)、血清白蛋白(ALB)、前白蛋白(PA)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)水平和上臂肌围(AMC)的变化,肺部感染、应激性溃疡和泌尿系感染等并发症的发生率,NIHSS评分及Barthel指数的变化以及营养支持治疗满意度.结果 住院第21天,观察组和对照组各项营养指标均有下降,且对照组营养指标减低更为显著,观察组各项营养指标明显优于对照组(P<0.05).第21天观察组低蛋白血症发生率(19.04%)显著低于对照组(39.6%).观察组感染发生率(23.8%)显著低于对照组(62.5%).第21天2组NIHSS评分和Barthel指数差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).观察组对联合营养管理满意率显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 包括临床医师、护士、营养师及康复师在内的联合营养管理模式有利于重症脑卒中患者的营养供给,提高脑卒中患者的生存质量,值得临床推广使用.  相似文献
6.
目的 研究低热量肠内营养护理对重症高血压脑出血术后患者肠黏膜屏障功能和营养状况的影响.方法 回顾性分析我院收治的90例重症高血压脑出血病人,随机分为观察组45例(采用常规治疗),对照组45例(常规治疗的同时采用低热量肠内营养和护理).对比护理后2组患者的肠黏膜屏障功能(D-LAC、DAO水平)、营养状况(TP、ALB、Hb、TFN水平)和并发症发生情况.结果 观察组D-LAC、DAO水平均明显低于对照组(P<0.05),营养状况(TP、ALB、Hb、TFN水平)改善情况均明显优于对照组(P<0.05),并发症发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 低热量肠内营养护理可减轻肠黏膜屏障功能损伤,利于肠黏膜屏障的修复,提高患者的营养指标,降低并发症发生率.  相似文献
7.
目的:研究帕金森病( PD)患者营养状况及其相关因素。方法收集180名PD患者为研究对象,应用量表系统性评估患者运动及非运动症状,采用微营养评定法( MNA-SF)评估营养状况。结果正常营养状态与非正常营养状态PD患者间病程、统一PD评分量表Ⅲ( UPDRSⅢ)、H-Y分期及非运动症状的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05~0.01)。二元Logistics回归结果显示H-Y分期(OR=2.35,95%CI:1.24~4.45, P=0.007)、抑郁情绪(OR=1.39,95%CI:1.25~1.67,P<0.001)与非正常营养状态显著相关。结论 PD患者营养状况与其疾病本身、运动症状、非运动症状密切相关。  相似文献
8.
目的:探讨不同早期肠内营养方案对严重颅脑外伤患者胃肠功能和营养状况的影响。方法收集我院2010‐06—2013‐06收治的严重颅脑外伤患者62例为研究对象,随机分为试验组与对照组,每组各31例。2组患者入院24 h内开始肠内营养,试验组还同时给予益生菌。然后观察2组患者的呕吐、腹胀、胃潴留、反流、便秘及腹泻等胃肠道反应情况;观察患者的首次排便时间和肠内营养达标时间。于营养开始第0、6、14、21天检测患者的血清白蛋白、血红蛋白、空腹血糖及淋巴细胞计数等营养指标,并比较2组患者住IC U时间。结果2组呕吐、腹胀、胃潴留、腹泻和住IC U时间比较差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。试验组反流及便秘发生例数和营养支持第6、14天空腹血糖明显低于对照组。试验组营养支持第21天白蛋白及血红蛋白水平显著高于对照组。试验组的首次排便时间及肠内营养达标时间早于对照组。结论在肠内营养同时添加益生菌既可以改善严重颅脑损伤患者的胃肠功能,又可以提高患者机体的营养状况。  相似文献
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