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1.
电针对慢性应激抑郁模型大鼠脑单胺类神经递质的影响   总被引:72,自引:3,他引:69  
目的 探讨电针刺激百会、印堂穴对慢性应激抑郁模型大鼠脑内单胺类神经递质的影响及治疗抑郁症的机理。方法 将24 只SpragueDawley 雄性大鼠随机分为对照组、抑郁模型组、抑郁模型加电针组和抑郁模型加阿米替林组,每组6 只。用高效液相电化学法测定大鼠脑内单胺类神经递质及其代谢产物的含量,比较含量的比值。结果 抑郁模型组大鼠脑皮层5羟色胺(5HT)/5羟吲哚乙酸(5HIAA) 、纹状体多巴胺(DA)/3,4二羟基苯乙酸(DOPAC) 分别为0-50 ±0-17,10-37 ±1-40,低于对照组( 分别为0-88±0-25 ,12-36 ±1-50),P< 0-05 ;皮层去甲肾上腺素(NE)/5HT(2-88 ±1-00) 高于对照组(1-73±0-40) ,P< 0-05。电针刺激百会、印堂穴可使模型大鼠脑皮层5HT/5HIAA 与NE/5HT恢复正常(P<0-05) ,对纹状体DA/DOPAC 的降低无影响( P> 0-05)。结论 提示电针刺激百会、印堂穴通过降低皮层5HT的代谢,提高5HT能神经的活性,并协调NE 与5HT之间的平衡来发挥抗抑郁作用。  相似文献
2.
卒中后抑郁状态患者的血浆、脑脊液单胺类神经递质测定   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
目的 探讨卒中后抑郁状态与血浆、脑脊液单胺类递质水平的关系。方法 采用高压液相色谱仪 ,测定 32例卒中后抑郁状态患者、30例卒中后无抑郁状态患者及 2 8名正常人的血浆、脑脊液单胺类递质水平 ,进行对照分析。结果 卒中后抑郁状态患者血浆、脑脊液中单胺类递质水平[多巴胺 (DA) =(2 6± 0 4) μmol L ,(2 0± 0 3) μmol L ;去甲肾上腺素 (NE) =(0 19± 0 0 6 ) μmol L ,(0 14± 0 0 6 ) μmol L ;5 羟色胺 (5 HT) =(1 0 9± 0 30 ) μmol L ,(0 6 0± 0 12 ) μmol L]低于卒中后无抑郁组 [DA =(3 2± 0 5 ) μmol L ,(2 6± 0 4) μmol L ;NE =(0 31± 0 12 ) μmol L ,(0 2 8± 0 0 8) μmol L ;5 HT=(1 31± 0 40 ) μmol L ,(1 11± 0 40 ) μmol L]及正常对照组 [DA =(2 9± 0 5 ) μmol L ,(2 2± 0 6 )μmol L ;NE =(0 2 7± 0 70 ) μmol L ,(0 2 3± 0 0 8) μmol L ;5 HT =(1 19± 0 30 ) μmol L ,(0 88± 0 0 7)μmol L],而大脑左侧及前部卒中患者的血浆、脑脊液中单胺类递质水平低于其它卒中部位患者 (P <0 0 5 ) ,脑脊液单胺类递质水平与抑郁程度呈负相关 (P <0 0 5 )。结论 卒中后抑郁状态的发生与血浆、脑脊液中单胺类神经递质的降低有关  相似文献
3.
GABAergic Mechanisms in Epilepsy   总被引:32,自引:5,他引:27  
4.
The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
McEwen BS 《Brain research》2000,886(1-2):172-189
The hormones and other physiological agents that mediate the effects of stress on the body have protective and adaptive effects in the short run and yet can accelerate pathophysiology when they are over-produced or mismanaged. Here we consider the protective and damaging effects of these mediators as they relate to the immune system and brain. 'Stress' is a principle focus, but this term is rather imprecise. Therefore, the article begins by noting two new terms, allostasis and allostatic load that are intended to supplement and clarify the meanings of 'stress' and 'homeostasis'. For the immune system, acute stress enhances immune function whereas chronic stress suppresses it. These effects can be beneficial for some types of immune responses and deleterious for others. A key mechanism involves the stress-hormone dependent translocation of immune cells in the blood to tissues and organs where an immune defense is needed. For the brain, acute stress enhances the memory of events that are potentially threatening to the organism. Chronic stress, on the other hand, causes adaptive plasticity in the brain, in which local neurotransmitters as well as systemic hormones interact to produce structural as well as functional changes, involving the suppression of ongoing neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and remodelling of dendrites in the Ammon's horn. Under extreme conditions only does permanent damage ensue. Adrenal steroids tell only part of the story as far as how the brain adapts, or shows damage, and local tissue modulators - cytokines for the immune response and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters for the hippocampus. Moreover, comparison of the effects of experimenter-applied stressors and psychosocial stressors show that what animals do to each other is often more potent than what experimenters do to them. And yet, even then, the brain is resilient and capable of adaptive plasticity. Stress-induced structural changes in brain regions such as the hippocampus have clinical ramifications for disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and individual differences in the aging process.  相似文献
5.
Extracellular (EC) concentrations of amino acids were determined in the rat dentate gyrus by means of non-linear regression analysis of 'in vivo' brain dialysis data, considering a simple model of diffusion through a dialysis membrane. The apparent diffusion constants (K) of several amino acids were also calculated in the 'in vivo' situation. While putative amino acid neurotransmitters (glutamate, aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were present in the EC fluid at the low micromolar range (0.8-2.9 microM), glutamine was by far the most prominent (193.4 microM). The values of intra/extracellular concentration ratios formed 3 groups: high (greater than 2000) for putative neurotransmitters; low (less than 100) for serine, glutamine, arginine and alpha-alanine; and intermediate (about 400) for taurine. The 'in vivo' calculated K values proved useful for estimation of both basal and changing EC concentrations of amino acids in relatively brief perfusions. These data were evaluated in terms of the functional significance of absolute EC concentrations and tissue-EC fluid ratios. Present findings indicate the simultaneous existence of both an inhibitory and an excitatory tonus as well as the utility of high intra/extracellular concentration ratios in determination of the possible neurotransmitter role of specific amino acids.  相似文献
6.
产后抑郁症与孤啡肽及单胺类递质的相关性研究   总被引:21,自引:1,他引:20  
目的 探讨孤啡肽 (OFQ)及单胺类递质与产后抑郁症的关系。方法 采用放射免疫法测定 2 5名健康产妇 (对照组 )及 17例产后抑郁症妇女 (抑郁组 )静脉血中孤啡肽及单胺类递质含量。结果 ①抑郁组及对照组血孤啡肽含量分别为 (2 7 39± 6 0 4 )ng/L及 (10 37± 3 6 5 )ng/L ,与对照组相比 ,抑郁组孤啡肽含量显著升高 (P <0 0 1) ;抑郁组及对照组血 5 羟色胺 (5 HT)含量分别为 (0 93± 0 2 1) μmol/L及 (1 4 3± 0 36 ) μmol/L ,二者间有显著差异 (P <0 0 5 ) ;抑郁组血多巴胺 (DA)含量为 (2 15± 0 4 1) μmol/L ,显著低于对照组 (P <0 0 5 )。②抑郁组孤啡肽与5 HT及DA含量呈显著负相关 (r为 0 6 0 1及 0 5 93,P <0 0 5 )。③抑郁组爱丁保产后抑郁量表总分 (EPDS)与OFQ含量呈显著正相关 (r为 0 5 12 ,P <0 0 5 ) ,与 5 HT、DA含量呈显著负相关 (r分别为 - 0 5 71及 - 0 5 2 6 ,P <0 0 5 )。结论 孤啡肽与产后抑郁症的发生发展密切相关。  相似文献
7.
2型糖尿病患者生物心理因素的研究   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
目的探讨2型糖尿病患者有关的生物心理因素。方法对90例2型糖尿病患者和30名正常人进行明尼苏达多相人格调查表(MMPI)、多伦多述情障碍量表(TAS)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、社会支持量表(SS)等评定,测定血浆促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)、血小板5-羟色胺(5-HT)、血清白介素(IL)6(IL-6)及SIL-2R水平,并检测患者空腹血糖(FBG)、早餐后2h血糖(2PBG)和糖化血红蛋白指数(HbA1c)水平。将患者随机分为常规治疗组(常规组,45例;采用格列吡嗪7.5-15 mg/d)和常规治疗加帕罗西汀治疗组(合用帕罗西汀组,45例;采用格列吡嗪7.5~15 mg/d和帕罗西汀20 mg/d),治疗2个月后(两组分别失访4例和9例)观察患者上述量表评分、实验室指标的变化及其与FBG、2PBG、HbA1c等指标变化的关系。结果(1)治疗前,与正常对照组比较,患者组TAS、HAMD、HAMA总分高,SS总分较低(P<0.05),MMPI提示人格偏移;血浆ACTH、血清IL-6、SIL-2R及FBG浓度高,血小板5-HT浓度低(均P<0.01和<0.05)。(2)治疗后,合用帕罗西汀组的HAMD分、HAMA分、ACTH、IL-6以及糖代谢指标的改善程度均优于常规组。(3)患者组的HAMD减分率与ACTH变化率(r=0.37)及IL-6变化率(r=0.40)均呈正相关,HAMA减分率与ACTH变化率(r=0.41)呈正相关(均P<0.01);FBG下降率与H  相似文献
8.
Ionotropic and metabotropic (mGluR1a) glutamate receptors were reported to be segregated from each other within the postsynaptic membrane at individual synapses. In order to establish whether this pattern of distribution applies to the hippocampal principal cells and to other postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, the mGluR1a/b/c and mGluR5 subtypes were localized by immunocytochemistry. Principal cells in all hippocampal fields were reactive for mGluR5, the strata oriens and radiatum of the CA1 area being most strongly immunolabelled. Labelling for mGluR1b/c was strongest on some pyramids in the CA3 area, weaker on granule cells and absent on CA1 pyramids. Subpopulations of non-principal cells showed strong mGluR1 or mGluR5 immunoreactivity. Electron microscopic pre-embedding immunoperoxidase and both pre- and postembedding immunogold methods consistently revealed the extrasynaptic location of both mGluRs in the somatic and dendritic membrane of pyramidal and granule cells. The density of immunolabelling was highest on dendritic spines. At synapses, immunoparticles for both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were found always outside the postsynaptic membrane specializations. Receptors were particularly concentrated in a perisynaptic annulus around type I synaptic junctions, including the invaginations at 'perforated'synapses. Measurements of immunolabelling on dendritic spines showed decreasing levels of receptor as a function of distance from the edge of the synaptic specialization. We propose that glutamatergic synapses with an irregular edge develop in order to increase the circumference of synaptic junctions leading to an increase in the metabotropic to ionotropic glutamate receptor ratio at glutamate release sites. The perisynaptic position of postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors appears to be a general feature of glutamatergic synaptic organization and may apply to other G-protein-coupled receptors.  相似文献
9.
广泛性焦虑患者单胺递质、神经内分泌及免疫的动态观察   总被引:17,自引:1,他引:16  
目的 探讨广泛性焦虑患者于中国道家认知疗法治疗前后的血浆肾上腺素 (EPH)、去甲肾上腺素 (NE)、促肾上腺皮质激素 (ACTH)、皮质醇 (CS)和白细胞介素Ⅱ (IL 2 )水平的动态变化。方法 收集 2 9例患者接受中国道家认知疗法治疗 6个月 ,于治疗前后取血测定上述生化指标 ,选择2 9名年龄和性别相匹配的正常人作为对照组。结果 患者组治疗前EPH为 (5 91± 34 5 )ng/L、ACTH为 (2 4± 2 1)ng/L ,IL 2为 (2 2 3± 2 0 1)U/L ,均高于对照组 [(35 2± 10 9)ng/L、(12± 11)ng/L、(88± 86 )U/L],差异有显著性 (P <0 0 5 ) ;CS为 (79± 49)U/L ,低于对照组 (138± 74)U/L ,差异有显著性 (P <0 0 5 ) ;NE为 (741± 390 )ng/L ,与对照组 (75 1± 2 11)ng/L的差异无显著性 (P >0 0 5 )。患者经 6个月治疗焦虑症状缓解后 ,ACTH [(14± 9)ng/L]和IL 2 [(133± 76 )U/L]水平较治疗前降低 (P <0 0 5 ) ,CS[(148± 10 7)U/L]水平增高 (P <0 0 5 ) ,均接近于对照组水平 (P >0 0 5 )。结论 广泛性焦虑患者存在生化指标EPH、ACTH、CS和IL 2的异常 ,中国道家认知疗法可使患者的临床症状缓解、生化指标恢复正常。  相似文献
10.
In the present investigation we studied the autoradiographic localization and the characteristics of the depolarization-induced release of acidic amino acids in in vitro rat cerebellar preparations. Light microscopy autoradiography of cerebellar slices preincubated in the presence of the non-metabolized glutamate analogue D-[3H]aspartate showed a large accumulation of radioactivity over glial cells, and very little labelling of the granule cells, whose putative neurotransmitter may be glutamate. In spite of its predominant localization in glia, D-[3H]aspartate (and [14C]glutamate) was released from cerebellar slices depolarized with high [K+] in a Ca2+-dependent way, and the release elicited by veratrine was prevented by TTX. These findings, together with the observation that freshly isolated or cultured glial cells did not show any Ca2+-dependent, depolarization-induced release of D-[3H]aspartate, suggest that the radioactive amino acid released from slices has a neuronal origin. The high [K+]-induced release of exogenous radioactive acidic amino acids from superfused cerebellar synaptosomal preparations exhibited, as best, a modest Ca2+-dependence, a result probably due to the existence of a substantial non-Ca2+-dependent release of the amino acid from glial fragments contaminating the preparation. However, both the K+-evoked release of endogenous glutamate, and that of [14C]glutamate previously synthesized from [14C]glutamine were largely Ca2+-dependent, suggesting that nerve endings are the main sites involved in the stimulus-coupled secretion. In the experiments in which synaptosomes had been prelabelled with [14C]glutamine, a study of the specific radioactivity of the glutamate released and of that present in synaptosomes at the beginning and at the end of superfusion period provided evidence in favour of a preferential release of the newly synthesized [14C]glutamate. In contrast to glutamate, endogenous aspartate was not released in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and the efflux of newly formed [14C]aspartate was only slightly potentiated by Ca2+, which suggests that glutamate and aspartate are not released from the same sites. Studies on preparations (slices and synaptosomes) from immature, 8-day-old cerebella showed that neither the K+-evoked release of D-[3H]aspartate, nor that of endogenous glutamate was Ca2+-dependent. In conclusion, the data presented are consistent with the proposition that glutamate has a neurotransmitter role in the cerebellum.U  相似文献
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