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1.
A number of rat peripheral neuropathy models have been developed to simulate human neuropathic pain conditions. The current study sought to determine the relative importance of site versus type of peripheral nerve injury in eliciting mechanical allodynia and spinal glial responses. Rats received one of seven different surgical treatments at the L5 spinal level: spinal nerve cryoneurolysis, spinal nerve tight ligation, dorsal root cryoneurolysis, dorsal root tight ligation, dorsal root transection, ventral root tight ligation, or laminectomy/dural incision sham. Foot-lift response frequency to mechanical stimulation of the ipsilateral hindpaw was assessed postlesion on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. L5 spinal cords were retrieved for immunohistochemical analysis of microglial (OX-42) and astrocytic (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein) responses. Both types of spinal nerve lesion, freeze and tight ligation, produced rapid and profound mechanical allodynia with intense glial responses. Dorsal root lesions also resulted in intense mechanical allodynia; however, glial responses were almost exclusively astrocytic. Ventral root tight ligation and sham provoked no marked behavioral changes and only sporadic glial responses. Direct dorsal horn communication with the dorsal root ganglion was not a crucial factor in the development of mechanical allodynia, since decentralization of the L5 DRG by complete L5 dorsal root lesion produced profound mechanical sensitization. Conversely, microglial activation responses appear to be dependent upon dorsal root ganglion-mediated signals and, contrary to behavioral responses, were robust only when the lesion was made peripheral to the cell body. Astrocytic activation was always observed following axonal injury and reliably coexisted with behavioral responses.  相似文献
2.
Liu X  Zhou JL  Chung K  Chung JM 《Brain research》2001,900(1):119-127
In an attempt to identify important ion channels contributing to the generation of ectopic discharges, the present study examined the effects of ion channel blockers on ectopic discharges of injured sensory neurons after spinal nerve ligation. The main focus of the study was to examine the effect of the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX), in order to identify important subtype(s) (i.e. TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant) of sodium channels that are involved in ectopic discharge generation. In addition, the effects of potassium and calcium channel blockers were also tested for comparison with the results of previous studies. The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the injured segment was removed along with the dorsal root (DR) and the spinal nerve 7-14 days after spinal nerve ligation in the rat. The tissue was placed in an in-vitro recording chamber consisting of multiple compartments that were independently perfused with 35 degrees C artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). Single unit recordings were made from teased DR fibers. Once a spontaneously active unit was found and characterized, ACSF containing a channel blocker was perfused to the DRG, the site where almost all ectopic discharges originate after spinal nerve ligation. All the recorded spontaneously active units were found to be Abeta and Adelta fibers (no C fibers were detected). Perfusion of the DRG with a sodium channel blocker (lidocaine) at a dose much less than that required to block conduction of action potentials, significantly inhibited ectopic discharges in all recorded fibers. In addition, ectopic discharges were inhibited by TTX perfused to the DRG at a dose much lower (average of 22.1 nM) than that required to block TTX-resistant subtypes of sodium channels. The data suggest that TTX-sensitive sodium channels are likely to be involved in the generation of ectopic discharges. The present study also confirmed the results of previous studies on the additional potential roles of potassium and calcium channels, thus suggesting that multiple ion channels are likely to be involved in the generation of ectopic discharges.  相似文献
3.
Etanercept reduces hyperalgesia in experimental painful neuropathy   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Etanercept, a recombinant tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fc fusion protein competitively inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Etanercept has been successfully used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, where it reduces pain and inflammation. Because locally produced proinflammatory cytokines play a role in pain after nerve injury, we investigated whether etanercept can reduce pain and hyperalgesia in an animal model of painful neuropathy, the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. C57BL/6 mice received etanercept or sham treatment by local near-nerve injection to the injured nerve or by systemic application. Treatment with etanercept reduced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia significantly in both modes of application. The effect of etanercept was present in animals that were treated from the time of surgery and in those that were treated from day 6, when hyperalgesia was already present. These results suggest the potential of etanercept as a treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain.  相似文献
4.
We have used computer simulation to better understand how the prolonged époques of repetitive discharge that underlie chronic neuropathic pain are generated. When subjected to step depolarization the cell soma of most primary afferents produces a single spike, or a brief spike burst, and then falls silent. Slow ramp depolarization typical of physiological stimuli does not evoke any spikes, due to the pronounced membrane accommodation of these neurons. Prior work in live DRG neurons suggests that prolonged neuropathic discharge occurs in neurons that generate subthreshold membrane potential oscillations; the rising (depolarizing) phase of the oscillation sinusoid triggers discharge that can last indefinitely. The specific contribution of oscillations to prolonged electrogenesis is not fully understood, however, as they typically add no more than approximately 5 mV to overall cell depolarization. We constructed a computer simulation of a dorsal root ganglion neuron that generates subthreshold oscillations and prolonged electrogenesis. We found that the slope of the rising phase of the oscillation sinusoid, in addition to its amplitude, is an important factor in the ability of oscillations to generate spike trains. The relatively steep slope of oscillation sinusoids facilitates electrogenesis by transiently overcoming the membrane accommodation associated with physiological slow ramp depolarization.  相似文献
5.
6.
Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete recovery of function and sometimes associated with neuropathic pain. There is, therefore, need for therapies which improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. In addition, neuropathic pain is not easily dealt with clinically and should preferably be eliminated. Neurotrophic factors have well-documented abilities to support neuron survival and stimulate neurite outgrowth, making them excellent candidates for use in repairing injured nerves. We investigated the possible beneficial effects of repairing the transected rat sciatic nerve by local application of a fibrin sealant containing nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Fibrin sealant was used in conjunction with sutures. Evaluation of motor and sensory function, autotomy, and histological parameters was carried out from 1 to 12 weeks after injury. We demonstrate that NGF cotreatment decreased the occurance of autotomy, suggesting a reduction of neuropathic pain, and improved the performance in motor and sensory tests. In addition, the number of regenerating motoneurons was significantly increased after NGF administration. GDNF increased the speed of sensory recovery, but also markedly increased autotomy, indicating an increased degree of neuropathic pain. aFGF did not alter the outcome of the motor or sensory tests. Fibrin sealant could easily be used in conjunction with sutures to deliver neurotrophic substances locally to the damaged nerve and to enhance recovery of nerve function.  相似文献
7.
The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is involved in injury-induced peripheral nerve pathology and in the generation of neuropathic pain. Here, we investigated local protein levels of the two known TNF receptors, TNF receptor 1 and 2 (TNFR1, TNFR2), on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after unilateral crush or chronic constriction injury (CCI) of mouse sciatic nerves using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Both receptors were detectable at a low level in nerve homogenates from naive mice. After crush or CCI, TNFR1 increased by 2-fold on days 3 and day 7. Unlike TNFR1, TNFR2 was markedly upregulated already on day 1 after crush or CCI. TNFR2 increased by 7-fold on days 3 and 7, and remained elevated at a lower level until day 28 after both CCI and crush injury. These data indicate that endoneurial TNFR1 and TNFR2 proteins are differentially regulated during Wallerian degeneration.  相似文献
8.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuously released BDNF on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat model. Initial in vitro evaluation of calcium alginate prolonged-release-capsules (PRC) proved a consistent release of BDNF for a minimum of 8 weeks. In vivo, a worst case scenario was created by surgical removal of a 20-mm section of the sciatic nerve of the rat. Twenty-four autologous fascia tubes were filled with calcium alginate spheres and sutured to the epineurium of both nerve ends. The animals were divided into 3 groups. In group 1, the fascial tube contained plain calcium alginate spheres. In groups 2 and 3, the fascial tube contained calcium alginate spheres with BDNF alone or BDNF stabilized with bovine serum albumin, respectively. The autocannibalization of the operated extremity was clinically assessed and documented in 12 additional rats. The regeneration was evaluated histologically at 4 weeks and 10 weeks in a blinded manner. The length of nerve fibers and the numbers of axons formed in the tube was measured. Over a 10-week period, axons have grown significantly faster in groups 2 and 3 with continuously released BDNF compared to the control. The rats treated with BDNF (groups 2 and 3) demonstrated significantly less autocannibalization than the control group (group 1). These results suggest that BDNF may not only stimulate faster peripheral nerve regeneration provided there is an ideal, biodegradable continuous delivery system but that it significantly reduces the neuropathic pain in the rat model.  相似文献
9.
Sun Q  Tu H  Xing GG  Han JS  Wan Y 《Experimental neurology》2005,191(1):128-136
It is widely accepted that ectopic discharges originated from injured sites and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after peripheral nerve injury contribute to neuropathic pain. However, it has been recently shown that ectopic discharges were not always necessary for neuropathic pain. In the present study, we aim to further examine the role of ectopic discharges in neuropathic pain in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. With teased fiber recordings in vivo, the characteristics of ectopic discharges were observed over 14 days after SNL, and the correlation between ectopic discharges and tactile allodynia was analyzed. It was observed that ectopic discharges have three firing patterns (tonic, bursting, and irregular) after SNL, and proportions of these three patterns changed dynamically over time. The tonic and bursting types were dominant in the first 24 h following SNL, while the irregular type became the only pattern in the late stage (day 14). The average frequencies of ectopic discharges and the percentage of active filaments also changed over time, reaching the peak 24 h after SNL and then declined gradually. Ectopic discharges were highly correlated with tactile allodynia in the first 24 h following SNL, but surprisingly, not in the late stage of days 1 to 14. These findings suggest that ectopic discharges may be crucial in the triggering of neuropathic pain in the early stage, but their importance become more limited over time.  相似文献
10.
Partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice caused a marked and persistent decrease in the latency of paw withdrawal from a thermal stimulus only on the ipsilateral side. This thermal hyperalgesia was abolished by repeated intrathecal pretreatment with a specific antibody to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not neurotrophin-4, just before and after the nerve ligation. These results provide direct evidence that BDNF within the spinal cord may contribute to the development of thermal hyperalgesia caused by nerve injury in mice. We previously reported that protein level of full-length TrkB, which contains the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase domain, were clearly increased on the ipsilateral side of spinal cord membranes obtained from sciatic nerve-ligated mice. In the present study, we further demonstrated that the increased in the protein level of full-length TrkB is completely reversed by concomitant intrathecal injection of BDNF antibody. Furthermore, thermal hyperalgesia induced by nerve ligation was completely suppressed by repeated intrathecal injection of a specific antibody to full-length TrkB and an inhibitor of the protein tyrosine kinase activity for the neurotrophin receptor, K-252a. However, repeated intrathecal injection of a specific antibody to truncated TrkB, which lacks the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase domain, failed to reverse thermal hyperalgesia observed in nerve-ligated mice. These findings suggest the possibility that the binding of BDNF to full-length TrkB and subsequent its activation may play a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain-like thermal hyperalgesia induced by nerve injury in mice.  相似文献
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