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Summary: Cortical dysplastic lesions (CDLs) are usually identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical, electrographic and histologic findings suggest that focal CDLs (FCDLs) are highly epileptogenic, often involve the rolandic cortex, and can present variable degrees of histopathologic abnormalities. An ictal or "ictal-like" bursting pattern of electrographic activity was recorded over dysplastic cortex in 65% of our patients. Resective surgery can eliminate or significantly reduce seizure frequency in many medically intractable patients, depending on lesion location, degree, and extent of histopathologic abnormalities. Best results are achieved when complete or major excision of both the MRI-visible lesion and the cortical areas displaying ictal electrographic activity can be performed. This is more likely when the degree of histopathologic abnormality is mild to moderate or when the lesion is in a temporal lobe. More severe histopathologic abnormalities and central insular or multilobar lesions usually lead to less favorable results: either major excision of the visualized lesion is impractical or the lesion is microscopically more extensive than shown by MRI. Multilobar resection or hemispherectomy for patients with infantile spasms associated with CDLs and for patients with hemimegalencephaly are often associated with dramatic improvement in seizure control. Callosot-omy can be performed in selected patients with diffuse CDLs who have intractable drop attacks.  相似文献
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Partial Seizures Evolving to Infantile Spasms   总被引:14,自引:14,他引:2  
We describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) manifestations of four patients with simultaneous EEG-video-telemetry recording (VTR) documented partial seizures evolving to infantile spasms. Clinical manifestations of the partial seizures included cessation of activity, staring, automatisms, increased limb tone, and laughter. In each case, partial seizures were followed by a cluster of infantile spasms. Infantile spasms preceded by partial seizures have not been previously documented.  相似文献
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Ictal Clinical Electroencephalographic Findings of Spasms in West Syndrome   总被引:14,自引:14,他引:6  
Summary: The electroencephalographic/video recordings of 955 spasms in children with cryptogenic and symptomatic West syndrome (WS) were reviewed to define the relation between a clinical manifestation of a spasm and its EEG pattern, and to examine whether these features reflect the etiology and prognosis of WS. The review confirmed the spasm to be a distinct type of seizure, with a unique clinical and EEG pattern unlike that of all other recognized seizures. Symmetric spasms were present in cryptogenic and symptomatic patients. In contrast, asymmetric spasms, or focal signs recognizable during a spasm, strongly indicated the existence of a cerebral lesion. In both etiological groups, the characteristic ictal EEG pattern of the spasms consisted of a positive-vertex slow wave. The other two patterns apparently correlated to a spasm, were fast activity, here called spindle-like, and decremental activity. The fast activity corresponded to a clinical stare, and the decremental activity, when present, represented a postictal event. Although it was independent from the etiology of the spasms, persisting hypsarrhythmia during a cluster of spasms appeared to be an EEG pattern that correlated with a favorable outcome.  相似文献
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We report transient changes in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in a patient with focal status epilepticus, referred to us with a tentative diagnosis of neoplasm based on CT and angiographic findings. EEG seizures originated independently from each temporal-occipital area, predominantly from the right. Previous EEGs had shown almost exclusively right temporo-occipital epileptogenic activity. MRI showed increased signal intensity, and CT showed decreased right hemisphere attenuation without enhancement. One month later, there was resolution of the radiological and clinical abnormalities. The transient CT and MRI changes probably represented focal cerebral edema, developing during focal status epilepticus. Lack of change in the left hemisphere probably reflected the quantitative difference in epileptic activity. Clues to the diagnosis of focal edema due to status include: (1) changes on electrical and imaging studies that correlate anatomically with the clinical status, and (2) resolution of abnormalities with appropriate seizure control. In patients with suspected seizure disorders, electrical and clinical data should be correlated before interpretation is made of focal lesions seen by neuroimaging techniques.  相似文献
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Epileptogenesis and the Immature Brain   总被引:12,自引:12,他引:0  
S. L. Moshé 《Epilepsia》1987,28(S1):S3-S14
Summary: Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of seizures is highest early in life. This report discusses the experimental data derived from studies of focal epileptogenesis of the immature brain in tandem with ongoing maturational changes. During development, neurons have characteristic neurophysiological properties. Local interictal discharges are long in duration, lack a stereotypic morphology, and have limited fields. Yet the immature brain is very susceptible to the development of bilateral, although asynchronous, seizures and status epilepticus induced by amygdala kindling or by convul-sant drugs. This increased seizure susceptibility may be due to a functional immaturity of a substantia nigra, GABA-sensitive output system. The morbidity of convulsions occurring early in life may not be as grave as previously thought in terms of subsequent acquisition of "normal" developmental milestones. The propensity to develop recurrent convulsions in adulthood is not related to the severity of a single seizure in infancy. Although multiple severe seizures may predispose animals to the development of seizures later in life, this is not a unique feature of the immature brain, since it also occurs in the adult brain. Finally, there is evidence that the immature brain may respond to anticonvulsant drugs differently from its mature counterpart; these findings emphasize the need to develop new antiepileptic therapies that take into account the maturational state of the brain.  相似文献
8.
We describe three patients with benign partial epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT) in association with proven brain lesion (agenesis of the corpus callosum, lipoma of the corpus callosum, and congenital toxoplasmosis, respectively). The age of onset, the ictal signs, the interictal electroencephalographic findings and the favorable outcome of epilepsy even after withdrawal of drug therapy led to the diagnosis of BECT although organic brain lesions were present. In such cases, the epilepsy should not be ascribed to the lesions but should be considered benign even though fortuitiously associated with brain lesions.  相似文献
9.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), a common form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, has a distinct clinical and electroencephalographic profile. Often JME is not recognized, with serious consequences on the sufferers. We examined factors contributing to the missed diagnosis even in an epilepsy clinic. Of 70 JME patients, 66 (91.4%) were not diagnosed on referral and 22 (33%) were not initially recognized in the epilepsy clinic. The correct diagnosis was established after a mean of 8.3 +/- 5.5 years from disease onset and an interval of 17.7 +/- 10.4 months from first evaluation in the epilepsy clinic. Myoclonic jerks, the hallmark of the disease, were not usually reported by patients. Similarly, relevant questioning may not be included in the history. Absence seizures antedating jerks by many years, myoclonic jerks reported as unilateral, generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurring during sleep and focal EEG abnormalities are other factors contributing to not recognizing JME. Our study reemphasizes the need to have not only a correct seizure diagnosis but also a correct epilepsy-disease diagnosis.  相似文献
10.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Developmental Disorders of the Cerebral Cortex   总被引:12,自引:12,他引:3  
Ruben I. Kuzniecky 《Epilepsia》1994,35(S6):S44-S56
Summary: Developmental disorders of the neocortex are commonly associated with epilepsy. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced our understanding of these disorders by permitting accurate recognition and clinical correlation during life. These disorders have multiple etiologies and are dependent on the time of injury to the developing nervous system. MRI has permitted the classification of these malformations in three major groups: generalized disorders, unilateral hemispheric, and focal disorders. Generalized disorders include lissencephaly, pachygyria, band heterotopia, and subependymal heterotopias. Hemimegalencephaly comprised the unilateral disorder. Focal lesions include focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, and focal subcortical heterotopias. The information provided by MRI, in conjunction with the clinicoelectrographic features, is extremely important in the recognition of these syndromes and for the appropriate medical and surgical management of those patients with epilepsy.  相似文献
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