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1.
A Review of Mouse Mutants as Genetic Models of Epilepsy   总被引:8,自引:8,他引:10  
2.
Coding region and intronic mutations in the tau gene cause frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. Some of these mutations lead to an overproduction of tau isoforms with four microtubule-binding repeats. Here we have expressed the longest four-repeat human brain tau isoform in transgenic mice under the control of the murine Thy1 promoter. Transgenic mice aged 3 weeks to 25 months overexpressed human tau protein in nerve cells of brain and spinal cord. Numerous abnormal, tau-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and dendrites were seen. In addition, large numbers of pathologically enlarged axons containing neurofilament- and tau-immunoreactive spheroids were present, especially in spinal cord. Signs of Wallerian degeneration and neurogenic muscle atrophy were observed. When motor function was tested, transgenic mice showed signs of muscle weakness. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that overexpression of human four-repeat tau leads to a central and peripheral axonopathy that results in nerve cell dysfunction and amyotrophy. Received: 28 September 1999 / Revised, accepted: 18 November 1999  相似文献
3.
There is growing evidence indicating that reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated whether edaravone (free radical scavenger), minocycline (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (neuronal NOS, nNOS inhibitor), fluvastatin (endothelial NOS, eNOS activator) and pitavastatin (eNOS activator) can protect against MPTP neurotoxicity in mice under the same condition. The present study showed that 7-nitroindazole could protect dose-dependently against the striatal dopamine depletions in mice 5 days after MPTP treatment. In contrast, edaravone, minocycline, fluvastatin and pitavastatin did not show the neuroprotective effect on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion. Our immunohistochemical study showed that TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) and DAT (dopamine transporter) immunoreactivity was decreased significantly in the striatum and substantia nigra 5 days after MPTP treatment. The administration of 7-nitroindazole showed a protective effect against the severe reductions in levels of TH and DAT immunoreactivity in the striatum and substantia nigra 5 days after MPTP treatment. Furthermore, our Western blot analyses study showed the remarkable loss of TH protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. In contrast, 7-nitroindazole prevented a significant loss in TH protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. On the other hand, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) immunoreactivity increased significantly in the striatum and substantia nigra, 5 days after MPTP treatment. 7-Nitroindazole ameliorated severe increases in number of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes in the striatum and substantia nigra 5 days after MPTP treatment. Furthermore, our Western blot analyses study showed the increase of GFAP protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. 7-Nitroindazole prevented a significant increase in the GFAP protein levels in the striatum 5 days after MPTP treatment. The present results indicate that 7-nitroindazole can protect dose-dependently against the striatal dopamine depletions in mice 5 days after MPTP treatment. In contrast, edaravone, minocycline, fluvastatin and pitavastatin did not show the neuroprotective effect on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletions. These findings demonstrate that the overexpression of nNOS may play a major role in the neurotoxic processes of MPTP, as compared to the production of ROS, the overexpression of iNOS and the modulation of eNOS. Thus, our findings provide strong evidence for neuroprotective properties of nNOS inhibitor in this animal model of Parkinson's disease.  相似文献
4.
Although there is evidence that beta-amyloid impairs synaptic function, the relationship between beta-amyloid and synapse loss is not well understood. In this study we assessed synapse density within the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex of Tg2576 mice at 6-18 months of age using stereological methods at both the light and electron microscope levels. Under light microscopy we failed to find overall decreases in the density of synaptophysin-positive boutons in any brain areas selected, but bouton density was significantly decreased within 200 mum of compact beta-amyloid plaques in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and Layers II and III of the entorhinal cortex at 15-18 months of age in Tg 2576 mice. Under electron microscopy, we found overall decreases in synapse density in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus at both 6-9 and 15-18 months of age, and in Layers II and III of the entorhinal cortex at 15-18 months of age in Tg 2576 mice. However, we did not find overall changes in synapse density in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 subfield. Furthermore, in the two former brain areas we found a correlation between lower synapse density and greater proximity to beta-amyloid plaques. These results provide the first quantitative morphological evidence at the ultrastructure level of a spatial relationship between beta-amyloid plaques and synapse loss within the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex of Tg2576 mice.  相似文献
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6.
The Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy in Mice   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:26  
Summary: Purpose : To characterize the acute and chronic behavioral, electrographic and histologic effects of sustained seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice.
Methods : After status epilepticus, the surviving animals were continuously monitored for 24 h/day for 120 days. The brains were processed by using neo-Timm and Nissl stains.
Results : The first spontaneous seizures occurred between 4 and 42 days after status epilepticus. The mean "seizure-silent period" lasted for 14.4 ± 11.9 days. During the chronic phase, recurrent spontaneous seizures were observed 1–5 times per animal per week and were associated with sprouting in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus.
Conclusions : Structural brain damage promoted by pilocar-pine-induced status epilepticus may underlie or be associated with recurrent spontaneous seizures in mice.  相似文献
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8.
目的探讨盐酸多奈哌齐对血管性痴呆(VD)模型小鼠海马神经元中细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)表达的影响。方法采用双侧颈总动脉反复缺血-再灌注法制备小鼠VD模型。将小鼠随机分为假手术组、模型组及盐酸多奈哌齐治疗组,药物组给予盐酸多奈哌齐灌胃治疗。术后第29、30天,采用跳台试验和水迷宫试验对各组小鼠进行行为学成绩测试,采用免疫组化法观察各组小鼠海马神经元ERK表达的变化。结果盐酸多奈哌齐可明显改善VD模型小鼠学习、记忆成绩(P<0.05)。模型组小鼠海马CA1区ERK1、ERK2表达及海马CA3区p-ERK表达较假手术组及治疗组减少(均P<0.05)。结论盐酸多奈哌齐通过增加乙酰胆碱含量,后者作用于毒蕈碱乙酰胆碱受体(M受体)激活ERK,从而有助于改善学习和记忆功能。海马神经元内ERK的表达减少可能参与了VD的发病机制。  相似文献
9.
Biphasic Effects of Imipramine in Experimental Models of Epilepsy   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
In a variety of laboratory models of experimental epilepsy, imipramine exerts a biphasic action on the CNS as manifested by antiepileptic properties at low doses and convulsant effects at higher doses. In mice, imipramine (17.5-25 mg/kg, i.p.) blocks maximal electroshock seizures while exerting little or no effect on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. In cats, imipramine (2.5-15 mg/kg, i.v.) reduces penicillin and estrogen-induced epileptiform discharge, shortens afterdischarge duration and elevates afterdischarge threshold. Higher doses in mice induce neurotoxicity, including clonic seizures. In cats, doses above 20 mg/kg intensify chemically and electrically induced seizures and induce spontaneous epileptiform episodes. Such a biphasic action of imipramine may limit the drug's clinical utility as an antiepileptic agent and may provide an interesting tool for studies of catecholamines and brain excitability.  相似文献
10.
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