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Pharmacological analysis of male rat sexual behavior   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Pharmacological influences on male rat sexual behavior are reviewed in an attempt to identify neurotransmitters and their respective receptor types that regulate various factors comprising the behavioral pattern. Evidence is presented that: (1) serotonergic influence is generally inhibitory to sexual behavior, although two receptor subtypes may lower ejaculation threshold; (2) dopaminergic agonists facilitate several aspects of copulatory behavior and ex copula genital responses; (3) noradrenergic activity appears to increase sexual arousal; (4) cholinergic agonists facilitate ejaculation, or in some cases, delay or prevent initiation of copulation; (5) GABA agonists inhibit sexual responses both in and ex copula; (6) opiate agonists appear to inhibit copulation and penile reflexes, although antagonists have mixed effects; (7) ACTH and MSH peptides promote copulatory behavior and genital responses; (8) oxytocin facilitates ex copula penile responses, but may contribute to postejaculatory refractoriness; and (9) long-term exposure to prolactin inhibits sexual behavior and penile responses. Although some progress has been made in identifying neurotransmitter-receptor effects on behavioral components, copulatory behavior is complex and no drug has been found to affect only a single component. Furthermore, drug specificity is only relative.  相似文献
Summary Male epileptic patients frequently complain of sexual dysfunction, particularly impotence and loss of libido. Epilepsy itself, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and psychosocial factors are believed to contribute to impaired sexuality. We studied luteinizing hormone (LH) ulsatile secretion, gonadotropin, and prolactin (PRL) esponses to LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 37 adult male epileptic patients receiving AED monotherapy who were seizure-free and had normal EEGs. Sexuality was assessed by psychological interview. Impotence was diagnosed in 8 patients (in 2 combined with loss of sexual desire). The occurrence of hyposexuality (-20%) was independent of epilepsy syndrome or AED. No change in total testosterone (T) level was observed. Free T (ft)and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels were lower and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in epileptic subjects than in healthy controls, but a statistically significant difference was not observed between hypo- and normosexual patients. In impotent epileptic patients, estradiol (E2) levels were significantly increased as compared with those of patients with preserved sexuality and of healthy controls. The unbalanced relation between androgen and E2 levels was emphasized by decreased fT/E2, fT/E2, and DHT/E2 ratios obtained in hyposexual epileptic patients. In this group, LHRH induced blunted LH peaks. No changes were noted in LH pulsatility features. These findings of higher E2 levels and of decreased LH response to LHRH administration in some epileptic patients with impaired sexuality, may suggest they have subclinical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.  相似文献
男性垂体泌乳素腺瘤的诊断与治疗   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
目的 分析总结男性垂体泌乳素腺瘤的诊断和治疗特点方法 对10年间23例男性垂体泌乳素腺瘤患者的临床表现和肿瘤的病理学、内分泌学、影像学及治疗特点进行分析。结果 患者平均年龄38.7岁。临床表现以性功能、视力视野障碍多见。患者平均血清泌乳素水平为2705.22+-  3.85ng/ml.肿瘤平均高度为30.41+-11.86mm,78%的肿瘤呈侵袭性生长或向鞍上.鞍旁不规则生长。经手术及药物治疗后,患者泌乳素降至641.54+-15.21ng/ml(p〈0.001);18例性功能障碍患者8例改善;13例视力下降的患者11例视力恢复正常或有不同程度改善;12例视野缺损的患者10例视野恢复正常或改善。结论 男性泌乳素腺瘤患者具有年龄高、肿瘤大且多侵袭性生长、泌乳素水平高等特点。单一疗法难以取得满意效果,应结合病人具体情况采用综合治疗。  相似文献
影响男性垂体泌乳素瘤疗效的因素分析   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的 探讨影响男性垂体泌乳素瘤疗效的因素。方法 回顾性分析38例男性泌乳素瘤患者的临床、病理及随诊资料,探讨影响其预后的因素。结果 治愈缓解16例,进步12例,无效10例。采用手术、放疗和/或药物综合治疗者较单纯手术者治愈缓解率显著高。术前PRL<1000μg/L者疗效较PRL>1000μg/L者显著好;年龄大于30岁者疗效较30岁以下者显著好。肿瘤大小及侵袭性程度和预后无关。结论 男性垂体泌乳素瘤对各种治疗方式的敏感性相对较差,手术、药物和/或放射治疗的综合治疗方式仍是其最有效的治疗方法,术前血清PRL水平和年龄是判断其预后的良好指标。  相似文献
Andrew G. Herzog 《Epilepsia》1991,32(S6):S34-S37
Summary: Androgen deficiency is unusually common among men with epilepsy. It may contribute to reproductive and sexual dysfunction and possibly exacerbate seizure frequency. The most important androgen is testosterone. It exists in the serum in a free form or bound to albumin or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Free testosterone levels have correlated significantly with measures of potency and sexual interest. The possibility that measures of non-SHBG-bound testosterone may provide a more sensitive assessment of biologically and perhaps clinically significant androgen levels is raised for consideration. Androgen deficiency may result from increased catabolism and binding induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). It is a feature of the reproductive endocrine disorders that are often associated with epilepsy: hypogonad-otropic hypogonadism, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and functional hyperprolactinemia. It may be a consequence of medication-induced elevations in serum estradiol. Estradiol exerts a potent inhibitory influence on luteinizing hormone secretion and may contribute to premature aging of the reproductive system, both at the level of the testes and the hypothalamus. Testosterone therapy may moderately benefit reproductive and sexual function. Despite its antiseizure effects in animal experiments, however, it has not been reported to improve seizures clinically. One possible explanation is that AEDs that induce enzyme synthesis may enhance the conversion of testosterone to estradiol by aromatase. This possibility is supported by the improved seizure control achieved with the adjunctive use of the aromatase inhibitor testolactone or the antiestrogen clomiphene.  相似文献
男性痴呆患者血清性激素的变化   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
目的:观察阿尔茨海默病(AD)和血管性痴呆(VD)男性患者血清性激素及促性腺激素的变化。方法:老年男性共114人,其中AD 3 2例;VD 3 0例;无痴呆正常老年人5 2名。采用化学发光法测定血中黄体生成素(LH )、促卵泡成熟素(FSH)、雌二醇(E2 )、催乳素(PRL)、睾酮(T)的含量,并计算E2 /T的比值。结果:AD组及VD组患者血清T水平较正常对照组低,差别有显著意义(P <0 .0 5 ,P <0 .0 1)。VD组患者血清E2 /T较正常对照组显著升高;也较AD组明显升高(P <0 .0 1,P <0 .0 5 )。AD、VD组患者血清E2 、LH、FSH、PRL与正常对照组比较,差别均无显著意义(P >0 .0 5 )。结论:老年男性AD及VD患者血清T水平降低。  相似文献
Gender differences in the psychopathology of depressed inpatients   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Abstract. In the last few years there has been increased scientific effort to describe the gender–specific psychopathological features of depression. Until now these studies have not been entirely conclusive, which could be the result of methodological difficulties. This report investigates sex differences in the symptom presentation in an inpatient population: 104 female and 113 male patients suffering from a depressive episode according to ICD–10 were admitted to the inpatient treatment at the Department of General Psychiatry in Vienna. A psychopathological rating according to the standardized documentation system of the AMDP (Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry) was performed at admission and discharge. At admission into the hospital women tended to show more affective lability (p = 0.025), whereas men had higher scores in affective rigidity (p = 0.032), blunted affect (p = 0.002), decreased libido (p = 0.028), hypochondriasis (p = 0.016) and hypochondriac delusions (p = 0.039). At discharge from the hospital women had significantly higher scores in dysphoria (p = 0.010), while men were more prone to have compulsive impulses (p = 0.030). Although our results were obtained in a selected sample of inpatients at a university hospital, they are indicative of psychopathological differences between men and women in the core symptoms of depression. These differences may influence diagnostic practice and gender specific treatment of depression.*Both authors contributed equally  相似文献
Human and animal studies suggest that neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide co-localized and co-released with classical neurotransmitters, is involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In addition, lithium, electroconvulsive treatments (ECT in humans and ECS in rodents) and antidepressants affect NPY in a specific temporal- and brain-region fashion. These results have been obtained on healthy male rats; females and/or “depressed” animals have essentially not been studied. Consequently, we studied brain NPY-like immunoreactivity (-LI) under basal conditions and following a series of ECS in both male and female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), an animal model of depression, and their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. Furthermore, we examined whether the oestrus cycle affects NPY-LI in these strains. Following sacrifice by focused microwave irradiation, the peptides were extracted from dissected brain regions and measured by radioimmunoassay. Hippocampal NPY-LI in both sexes was significantly lower in the “depressed” FSL compared to the control FRL. ECS increased NPY-LI in both male and female rats in both FSL and FRL strains in hippocampus, frontal cortex and occipital cortex. In the hypothalamus, the increase was found only in the FSL rats. In both FSL and control rats, the basal NPY-LI was lower in the hippocampus of female compared to male rats. NPY-LI did not vary during the different phases of the oestrus cycle. These results suggest that the gender differences are not due to NPY-LI variations during the oestrus. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that NPY plays a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and provide further evidence that one of the modes of ECS action is to elevate NPY in the limbic system. Assumption that gender differences in NPY could explain increased rates of depression in women is speculative, but is in line with the findings in the present study.  相似文献
The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat medial preoptic area (SDN-POA) has a volume five times larger in the adult male compared with that of the adult female. In the present study, the effects of discrete electrolytic destruction of the SDN-POA or other specific medial preoptic (MPOA) regions on masculine sexual behavior were determined in adult, sexually experienced male rats. Small lesions encompassing the SDN-POA had no effect on the maintenance of copulatory behavior. Lesions of similar size placed within the ventral or anterio-dorsal MPOA also did not consistently affect the display of masculine sexual behavior. However, animals that received small lesions within their dorsal MPOA showed a substantial, long-term decrease in number of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations compared to these parameters in sham-lesioned control rats, thus indicating a lesion-induced disruption of those neural mechanisms mediating these behaviors. Collectively these data suggest that the SDN-POA is not critical for a full expression of male sexual behavior and that the dorsal MPOA may be more important than other MPOA regions for copulatory behavior.  相似文献
Protective effects of treadmill training on infarction in rats   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
This study was undertaken to determine the protective effects of treadmill training on brain ischemic lesions caused by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in male rats. Rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-week treadmill pre-training, 2-week treadmill pre-training, and 4-week treadmill pre-training. Cerebral infarction was induced by MCA occlusion for 60 min, followed by reperfusion. After 24 h, rats were killed and brain slices were then stained to assess lesion size. Treadmill training at least for 2 weeks can reduce the infarction size and edema caused by MCA occlusion (P<0.01). The present study provides evidence that treadmill training reduces ischemic brain damage in an animal model of cerebral ischemia.  相似文献
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