首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   797篇
  国内免费   5篇
  完全免费   22篇
  神经病学   824篇
  2018年   43篇
  2017年   7篇
  2016年   15篇
  2015年   1篇
  2014年   34篇
  2013年   39篇
  2012年   40篇
  2011年   112篇
  2010年   72篇
  2009年   62篇
  2008年   63篇
  2007年   60篇
  2006年   46篇
  2005年   50篇
  2004年   37篇
  2003年   35篇
  2002年   29篇
  2001年   12篇
  2000年   15篇
  1999年   10篇
  1998年   8篇
  1997年   7篇
  1996年   3篇
  1995年   4篇
  1994年   2篇
  1993年   1篇
  1992年   6篇
  1991年   2篇
  1990年   2篇
  1989年   1篇
  1988年   1篇
  1987年   2篇
  1986年   1篇
  1985年   2篇
排序方式: 共有824条查询结果,搜索用时 437 毫秒
1.
BACKGROUND: Because researchers have reported that antidepressants increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat hippocampus, we investigated whether serum BDNF levels may be used as a putative biological marker for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS: We measured serum BDNF in the following three groups: antidepressant-naive patients with MDD (n = 16), antidepressant-treated patients with MDD (n = 17), and normal control subjects (n = 50). Patients were evaluated using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Serum BDNF was assayed with the sandwich ELISA method. RESULTS: We found that serum BDNF was significantly lower in the antidepressant-naive group (mean, 17.6 ng/mL; SD, 9.6) than in the treated (mean, 30.6 ng/mL; SD, 12.3; p =.001) or in the control group (mean, 27.7 ng/mL; SD, 11.4; p =.002). There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.350, z = -2.003, p =.045) between serum BDNF and HAM-D scores in all patients. In a preliminary examination, reduced BDNF values of three drug-naive patients recovered to basal levels after antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that low BDNF levels may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of MDD and that antidepressants may increase BDNF in depressed patients.  相似文献
2.
抑郁症自杀行为的相关危险因素研究   总被引:28,自引:6,他引:22  
目的 研究抑郁症自杀行为的危险因素。方法 按CCMD 2 R诊断标准收集 2 0 7例住院的抑郁症病人 ,采用多因素Logistic回归分析与抑郁症自杀行为有关的危险因素。 结果 抑郁症自杀未遂 6 6例 ( 31 9% ) ,自杀与绝望 (相对危险度RR =9 30 8)、负性生活事件 (RR =3 84 2 )、妄想 (RR =3 56 5)及自责 (RR =2 99)呈正相关。结论 提示绝望、负性生活事件、妄想及自责是抑郁症患者自杀的危险因素  相似文献
3.
Summary: The purpose of this article is to review the topic of interictal psychiatric comorbidity among adult patients with chronic epilepsy, focusing specifically on those studies that have used contemporary psychiatric nosology. Five specific issues are addressed: (a) the risk and predominant type(s) of psychiatric comorbidity in chronic epilepsy, (b) adequacy of recognition and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity, (c) the additional burdens that comorbid psychiatric disorders impose upon patients with chronic epilepsy, (d) the etiology of these disorders, and (e) strategies for treatment. Current appreciation for these issues in epilepsy is contrasted to related fields (e.g., primary care, psychiatry, and epidemiology), where considerable attention has been devoted to the identification, consequences, and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity. The issue of psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy is reviewed with the aim of identifying a clinical and research agenda that will advance understanding of at least one important psychiatric condition associated with epilepsy—namely, major depression.  相似文献
4.
门诊首发抑郁症临床现象学分析   总被引:19,自引:3,他引:16  
目的 了解首发抑郁症临床特征。方法 采用自制一般情况调查表、自制抑郁及焦虑症状调查有对符合ICD 10抑郁发作诊断标准的 14 4例门诊首发抑郁症患者进行研究。采用汉密顿抑郁量表 (HAMD2 4)、汉密顿焦虑量表 (HAMA)评定疾病的严重程度 ;采用生活满意度量表 (LSR)、社会功能缺陷筛选量表 (SDSS)、生活事件量表 (LES)评定患者的生活质量和社会功能。结果  14 4例首发抑郁症患者心境低落出现频率高达 10 0 % ,工作兴趣减少为 95 8% ,思维迟缓为 84 7% -能力减退感为 97 2 % ,早醒为 92 4 % ,睡眠不深为 90 3% ,性欲减退和 /或月经紊乱为 82 6 % ,同时伴有昼重夜轻 ,躯体化症状。男性患者的疑病症状出现频率显著高于女性 (P <0 0 5 ) ;男性患者的性欲减退、绝望感症状出现率高于女性 ;女性患者在自杀意念、精神性焦虑、躯体性焦虑、全身疲乏、晨夜夕轻症状出现频率多于男性 ,但无统计差异。 4 0岁以上患者组比 4 0岁以下组更易表现为睡眠不深、早醒、躯体性焦虑 (P <0 0 5 )。 6 1 1%的患者伴有一定程度的焦虑症状 ;6 0 %的患者伴有躯体化症状。重度抑郁的躯体化症状表现频率显著高于中度患者 (P <0 0 5或P <0 0 1) ,两者社会功能缺陷程度有显著性差异 (P <0 0 1)。结论 首发抑郁症临床以心#0;  相似文献
5.
Low glial numbers in the amygdala in major depressive disorder.   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
BACKGROUND: Functional imaging studies implicate the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, and glial decreases have been reported in the prefrontal cortex. Here, glia and neurons were counted in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and control cases. METHODS: Tissue blocks from major depressive disorder (7), bipolar disorder (10), and control (12) cases, equally divided between right and left, were cut into 50 microm sections and stained with the Nissl method. One major depressive disorder and all but two bipolar disorder cases had been treated with lithium or valproate. Neurons and glia were counted using stereological methods. RESULTS: Glial density and the glia/neuron ratio were substantially reduced in the amygdala in major depressive disorder cases. The reduction was mainly accounted for by counts in the left hemisphere. No change was found in neurons. Average glia measures were not reduced in bipolar disorder cases; however, bipolar disorder cases not treated with lithium or valproate had significant glial reduction. Similar but smaller changes were found in the entorhinal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Glia are reduced in the amygdala in major depressive disorder, especially on the left side. The results suggest that lithium and valproate may moderate the glial reduction.  相似文献
6.
BACKGROUND: This study examines the directionality and temporal specificity of brain activity during sustained processing of emotional stimuli in individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD) and nondepressed control participants. METHODS: Slow wave (SW) components of the event-related brain potential (ERP) were recorded from 16 control participants and 15 participants with MDD during a working memory task. During the task, individuals were shown a positive, neutral, or negative word and were asked to maintain it in memory for 5 sec. Participants then saw a letter and had to decide whether it was a part of the previously presented word. The ERP components were measured from nine scalp sites (F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4) during the encoding of emotional words. RESULTS: Compared with control individuals, MDD participants exhibited decreased brain responses to positive relative to negative or neutral stimuli. This decrease in brain activity during processing of positive information was evident across all sites and SW components. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cognitive deficits in MDD may stem from diminished brain responses during processing of positive information and may not be associated with an augmented response to negative stimuli.  相似文献
7.
Depression is the most frequent comorbid psychiatric disorder in epilepsy. Its lifetime prevalence has been estimated at between 6% and 30% in population-based studies and up to 50% among patients followed in tertiary centers. The risk of suicide has been estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the general population. Although no one questions that epilepsy is a risk for depression, recent studies have also revealed that a history of depression is associated with a 4- to 6-fold greater risk of developing epilepsy. These data suggest either a possible "bi-directional" relationship between these two disorders or the presence of common pathogenic mechanisms that facilitate the occurrence of one in the presence of the other. The clinical presentation of depressive disorders in epilepsy can be identical to that of nonepileptic patients and can include major depression, bipolar and dysthymic disorders, and minor depression. In a significant percentage of cases, however, the clinical features of depression in epilepsy fail to meet any of the DSM-IV Axis I categories. Depression in epilepsy may be iatrogenically induced with various antiepileptic drugs used to treat the seizure disorder or after surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy. Despite its relatively high prevalence, depression remains unrecognized and untreated, and unfortunately its treatment is based on empirical and uncontrolled data.  相似文献
8.
BACKGROUND: Accurate recognition of facial expressions is crucial for social functioning. In depressed individuals, implicit and explicit attentional biases away from happy and toward sad stimuli have been demonstrated. These may be associated with the negative cognitions in these individuals. METHODS: Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neural responses to happy and sad facial expressions were measured in 14 healthy individuals and 16 individuals with major depressive disorder. RESULTS: Healthy but not depressed individuals demonstrated linear increases in response in bilateral fusiform gyri and right putamen to expressions of increasing happiness, while depressed individuals demonstrated linear increases in response in left putamen, left parahippocampal gyrus/amygdala, and right fusiform gyrus to expressions of increasing sadness. There was a negative correlation in depressed individuals between depression severity and magnitude of neural response within right fusiform gyrus to happy expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate preferential increases in neural response to sad but not happy facial expressions in neural regions involved in the processing of emotional stimuli in depressed individuals. These findings may be associated with the above pattern of implicit and explicit attentional biases in these individuals and suggest a potential neural basis for the negative cognitions and social dysfunction in major depression.  相似文献
9.
抑郁症和精神分裂症共患焦虑障碍的研究   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
目的:了解抑郁症和精神分裂症患者与焦虑障碍的共病发生率及其相关因素。方法:对精神分裂症41例和抑郁症40例,用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)、Hamilton抑郁量表(HAMD)、Hamilton焦虑量表(HAMA)、Liebowitz社交焦虑量表(LSAS)进行评定。结果:抑郁症与焦虑障碍的共病率为50.0%,精神分裂症与焦虑障碍的共病率为29.3%。LSAS与HAMA呈正相关(r=0.465)。有关抑郁症和精神分裂症患者共患焦虑障碍经多元逐步回归分析可排除药源性焦虑。结论:对抑郁症和精神分裂症共患焦虑障碍问题应引起高度重视。  相似文献
10.
There are major concerns that specific agonal conditions, including coma and hypoxia, might affect ribonucleic acid (RNA) integrity in postmortem brain studies. We report that agonal factors significantly affect RNA integrity and have a major impact on gene expression profiles in microarrays. In contrast to agonal factors, gender, age, and postmortem factors have less effect on gene expression profiles. The Average Correlation Index is proposed as a method for evaluating RNA integrity on the basis of similarity of microarray profiles. Reducing the variance due to agonal factors is critical in investigating small but validated gene expression differences in messenger RNA levels between psychiatric patients and control subjects.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号