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1.
Summary: Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) dipole source localization is a particularly promising new tool for noninvasive presurgical evaluation of epileptogenic foci. It is potentially more accurate than EEG localization techniques because magnetic fields are not attenuated or distorted by the skull and scalp, which allows cerebral sources to be modeled more simply. MEG spike and seizure sources are routinely co-registered with the patient's brain MRI for clinical interpretation. This has been called magnetic source imaging. Numerous studies have shown that MEG localization of foci agreed with lesion position, depth electrode and ECoG data, PET and MRI findings, and surgical success. The recent development of whole head sensor arrays has greatly enhanced the ease with which epileptiform magnetic fields can be recorded and analyzed.  相似文献
2.
Summary: Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) discharges were recorded with multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometers in 13 young candidates for epilepsy surgery. The sources of epileptic activity were related to generators of somatosensory and auditory evoked cortical responses and projected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Seven subjects had restricted or regional MEG foci, located in the frontoopercular (1), sensorimotor (3), perisylvian (1), mesiotemporal (1), or temporooccipital cortex (1). The MEG foci in the 3 patients who underwent operation agreed with the intracranial findings. Findings in the other patients emphasize the need to collect further data to define the ultimate role of MEG in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy.  相似文献
3.
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and relative contribution of several diagnostic methods [ictal and interictal scalp and intracranial EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)] in identifying the epileptogenic zone for resection. METHODS: This was a prospective study using a masked comparison-to-criterion standard. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with refractory partial epilepsy from two university comprehensive epilepsy programs were studied. Patients who were evaluated for and underwent epilepsy surgery were recruited. The main outcome measure was the efficacy of each diagnostic method to identify the resected epileptogenic zone, when referenced to surgical outcome. RESULTS: MEG (52%) was second only to ictal intracranial V-EEG in predicting the epileptogenic zone for the entire group of patients who had an excellent surgical outcome (seizure free or rare seizure). In a subanalysis, for patients who had temporal lobe surgery, this same relation was seen (MEG, 57%, ictal intracranial V-EEG, 62%). With extratemporal resection, ictal (81%) and interictal (75%) intracranial EEG were superior to MEG (44%) in predicting the surgery site in those patients with an excellent outcome. Finally, for all patients who had a good surgical outcome, MEG (52%) was better than ictal (33%) or interictal (45%) scalp VEEG in predicting the site of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MEG is a very promising diagnostic method and raise the possibility that it may obviate the need for invasive EEG in some cases or reduce the length of scalp EEG evaluation in others.  相似文献
4.
A magnetoencephalographic study of patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:1  
Summary:  Purpose: Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) is a newly identified type of benign childhood epilepsy characterized by ictal vomiting and eye deviation. It is usually accompanied by occipital spike discharges; however, its classification as an early-onset benign childhood occipital epilepsy is controversial. To characterize this condition further, we examined the localization of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) of spike discharges by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in patients with PS.
Methods: We studied 13 patients with a mean age at time of examination of 5 years (range, 3–14 years). MEG was measured by using a whole-head 204-channel neuromagnetometer with simultaneous EEG recordings. The estimated locations of ECDs of each peak of the spike discharges were overlaid on magnetic resonance images of the brain.
Results: Eleven (84.6%) patients showed clustered ECDs in the areas alongside the parietooccipital sulcus (eight of 13; 61.5%) and/or the calcarine sulcus (four of 13; 30.8%). Despite Fp-O synchronization of the spike discharges in the scalp EEG of five patients, no frontal locations of ECDs were found. All five (38.5%) boys with sylvian seizures, who also showed clustered ECDs in rolandic areas, had an earlier age at onset and higher seizure frequency than did other patients. ECD orientations were regular in all but one patient, who showed irregular and dispersed ECDs alongside bilateral calcarine sulci.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate localized cortical hyperexcitability in the areas alongside major cortical sulci in PS and indicate that PS is closely related to benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.  相似文献
5.
Abou-Khalil B 《Epilepsia》2007,48(3):442-455
The intracarotid amobarbital procedure or Wada test has been the gold standard for lateralization of language dominance before epilepsy surgery. It is based on deactivation of language cortex with intracarotid anesthesia. However, it is an invasive test with risks and discomforts, and it also has limitations. There has been great interest in replacing the Wada test with a noninvasive procedure. One alternative, repetitive magnetic stimulation works by deactivating language cortex, but most other promising alternatives are based on brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 15O-water positron emission tomography, single photon emission computerized tomography, transcranial Doppler, and near infrared spectroscopy detect hemodynamic responses to language cortex activation, while magnetoencephalography more directly measures event-related physiological activation. Some of the techniques also provide localization of language functions, whereas the Wada test is strictly a lateralization method. Based on widespread availability, fMRI will likely be the most widely used alternative.  相似文献
6.
We report magnetoencephalographic localization of subdural electrode dipoles placed at the basal and mesial surfaces of the temporal lobe in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy. The locations of the three dipoles were predicted from their magnetic fields with a computer model of the head as a conducting sphere. The predicted locations were within 1, 3, and 4 mm of the actual locations. These results, obtained in an area of the brain from which epileptiform discharges are frequently recorded, strongly support the capability of magnetoencephalography to accurately localize electrical events in this brain region.  相似文献
7.
Ictal and interictal epileptic activity was recorded for the first time by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) in three patients with partial epilepsy. Pre- and intra-operative localization of the epileptogenic region was compared. The interictal epileptic activity was localized at the same region of the temporal or frontal lobe as the ictal activity. Main zones of ictal activity were shown to evolve from the tissue at the centers of interictal activity. Pre- and intra-operative electrocorticography (ECoG) as well as postoperative outcome confirmed localization in the temporal and frontal lobe. Results also correlated with findings from scalp EEG, interictal and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Combined multichannel MEG/EEG recording permitted dipole localization of interictal and ictal activity.  相似文献
8.
PURPOSE: To report our evaluation of interictal two epileptic spike fields on magnetoencephalography (MEG) by using invasive intracranial monitoring in a patient without lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: A 15-year-old left-handed boy with a 9-year history of refractory simple partial seizures, secondarily generalized, and a normal MRI, was studied with MEG to define magnetic spike sources, followed by invasive intracranial monitoring with subdural electrodes to delineate the epileptogenic zone and eloquent function pursuant to focal cortical excision. RESULTS: MEG demonstrated two spike foci on the right middle frontal and inferior rolandic areas adjacent to the sensory area. Ictal recordings during prolonged invasive monitoring from subdural electrodes revealed two epileptogenic zones in the same locations as those defined by MEG. Focal cortical excision was performed of each epileptogenic zone. The patient has been seizure free for 24 months without neurologic deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic source imaging is a valuable adjunct in the planning of subdural grid placement in epilepsy surgery, particularly in patients in whom conventional imaging fails to reveal a lesion.  相似文献
9.
PURPOSE: To test the sensitivity of extracranial magnetoencephalography (MEG) for epileptic spikes in different cerebral sites. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded MEG and electrocorticography (ECoG) by using subdural electrodes with 1-cm interelectrode distances for one patient with lateral frontal epilepsy and one patient with basal temporal epilepsy. We analyzed MEG spikes associated with ECoG spikes and compared the maximal amplitude and number of electrodes involved. We estimated and evaluated the locations and moments of the equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) of MEG spikes. RESULTS: In patient 1, MEG detected 100 (53%) of 188 ECoG lateral frontal spikes, including 31 (46%) of 67 spikes that activated three subdural electrodes. MEG spike amplitudes correlated with ECoG spike amplitudes and the number of electrodes activated (p < 0.01). ECDs were perpendicular to the superior frontal sulcus. In patient 2, MEG detected 31 (26%) of 121 ECoG basal temporal spikes, but none that activated only three subdural electrodes. ECDs were localized in the entorhinal and parahippocampal gyri, oriented perpendicular to those basal temporal cortical surfaces. The ECD strength was 136.6 +/- 71.5 nAm in the frontal region, but 274.5 +/- 150.6 nAm in the temporal region (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: When lateral frontal ECoG spikes extend >3 cm2 across the fissure, MEG can detect >50%, correlating with spatial activation and voltage. In the basal temporal region, MEG requires higher-amplitude discharges over a more extensive area. MEG shows a significantly higher sensitivity to lateral convexity epileptic discharges than to discharges in isolated deep basal temporal regions.  相似文献
10.
脑磁图神经导航引导下的脑功能区手术   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
目的 研究大脑半球功能区的手术治疗,提高神经功能的保护.方法 本组15例大脑半球内病灶包括:脑胶质瘤、脑膜瘤、海绵状血管瘤、脑脓肿,涉及运动区及语言区.手术前均行脑磁图功能定位,采取脑磁图-神经导航引导下的手术切除.结果 术前肢体运动功能正常的8例中7例术后肌力依然正常,1例对侧肌力减弱;术前肌力减弱的4例中3例术后恢复正常,无变化1例;2例语言区的肿瘤术后功能正常.结论 脑磁图可以准确定位神经功能区域,与神经导航联合应用可以设计合理的手术入路;对皮层表面的腩胶质瘤采用经硬脑膜病灶-脑界面栅栏分隔法,可有效地防止手术早期脑移位的误差,提高手术的准确性,有效地保护神经功能.  相似文献
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