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1.
Loneliness is a predictor of mortality and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Inflammation is a potential pathway through which loneliness might impact health. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between loneliness and inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) responses to standardized mental stress. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether individual variations in cortisol responses influenced the hypothesised relationship between loneliness and inflammation. Saliva samples and blood were taken from 524 healthy middle-aged men and women from the Whitehall II cohort at baseline, immediately after the stress tasks and 45min later. Loneliness was measured using the revised UCLA loneliness scale. Greater loneliness was associated with larger IL-6 (p=0.044) and IL-1Ra (p=0.006) responses to psychological stress and higher MCP-1 (p<0.001) levels in women, independently of age, grade of employment, body mass index and smoking status. No associations were observed in men. Cortisol responsivity was inversely related to loneliness in women, with the odds of being a cortisol responder decreasing with increased loneliness independently of covariates (p=0.008). The impact of loneliness on health in women may be mediated in part through dysregulation of inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems.  相似文献
2.
This study sought to clarify and extend existing knowledge of the negative sequelae of sexual abuse by comparing levels of self-esteem, anxiety, and loneliness in abused and nonabused girls. Comparisons indicated that sexually abused children had lower levels of self-esteem than nonabused children, but that levels of anxiety and loneliness did not differ between the groups. These findings empirically confirm one of the sequelae of sexual abuse commonly cited in the clinical literature and point to the need for interventions designed to redress this adverse effect.  相似文献
3.
Social interaction with peers and the understanding and feelings of loneliness were examined in 18 high-functioning children with autism and 17 typically developing children matched for IQ, chronological age, gender, and maternal education. Observations were conducted on children's spontaneous social initiations and responses to their peers in natural settings such as recess and snack time, and children reported on their understanding and feelings of loneliness and social interaction. Overall, children with autism revealed a good understanding of both social interaction and loneliness, and they demonstrated a high level of social initiation. However, they spent only half the time in social interactions with peers compared with their matched counterparts, and they interacted more often with a typically developing child than with another special education child. Despite the intergroup differences in frequency of interaction, a similar distribution of interactions emerged for both groups, who presented mostly positive social behaviors, fewer low-level behaviors, and very infrequent negative behaviors. Children with autism reported higher degrees of loneliness than their typical age-mates, as well as a lower association between social interaction and loneliness, suggesting their poorer understanding of the relations between loneliness and social interaction. Research and practice implications of these findings are discussed.  相似文献
4.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Scale (LSDS) in a sample of African-American and Hispanic-American children. Participants were a non-clinical sample ( N = 186) of children ages 11 to 13 in the fifth and sixth grades in a school in the Metropolitan New York area. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor model fits the sample data better than a one-factor model. Internal consistencies were acceptable across the two factors, and convergent validity of the LSDS was supported by a moderately positive relation with a self-report measure of depressive symptomatology. In a structural equation model, ethnicity, grade, and gender predicted little variance in each LSDS factor, suggesting little measure bias. These preliminary findings suggest that the LSDS is a psychometrically sound instrument for African-American and Hispanic-American children, yet future inspection of its factor structure in more diverse samples of children is warranted.  相似文献
5.
目的 了解初中生的孤独感现状,探究家庭环境对初中生孤独感的影响.方法 采用家庭环境量表中文版(FES-CV)及情绪—社交孤独问卷(ESLI)对556名初中生进行问卷调查.结果 本次调查结果发现,53.2%的初中生存在情绪孤立,39.1%存在社交孤立,38.5%存在情绪孤独,33.9%存在社交孤独.男生孤立感和孤独感较女生显著(P<0.01).初二学生情绪孤独较初一学生显著(P<0.05).情绪孤立与社交孤立的影响因子包括家庭亲密度、知识性和娱乐性.情绪孤独和社交孤独的影响因子包括家庭亲密度、矛盾性、娱乐性和组织性.结论 初中生孤独感发生率较高,家庭环境对初中生的孤独感具有重要的作用.  相似文献
6.
Objectives: As the opposite end of the continuum from social integration, social isolation may put individuals at a greater risk of poor mental health. Conceptualizing living alone as an objective and structural indicator of social isolation and loneliness as subjective perceptions of social isolation, the present study hypothesized that the relation between living alone and depressive symptoms would be mediated by the feelings of loneliness. Using older Korean Americans as the target population, the mediation model was examined in consideration of the contextual factors such as demographics (age, gender, education, perceived income, and length of stay in the USA), health (chronic conditions and functional disability), and general social integration (size of social network and community social cohesion).

Method: Date were drawn from surveys with 209 older Korean Americans in Central Texas (Mage = 69.6, SD = 7.5). Multivariate regression models of depressive symptoms were entered in the following order: (1) demographics, (2) health, (3) living alone, (4) social network/community social cohesion, and (5) loneliness. The mediation effect of loneliness in the relationship between living alone and depressive symptoms was separately examined using the bootstrapping method.

Results: Loneliness was found to mediate the relation between living alone and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 1.03, 95% CI = .05–2.08).

Conclusion: The results suggest that subjective perceptions of loneliness may explain the mechanism through which objective social isolation presents risks for depressive symptoms in older Korean Americans.  相似文献

7.
Objectives: This study aimed (1) to determine whether octogenarian and centenarian care recipients’ self-report on physical, social, and emotional status are different from caregivers’ reports, (2) to assess associations between octogenarian and centenarian care recipients’ poor physical, social, and emotional status and caregiver burden, and (3) to determine which report, the care recipients’ self-report or caregivers’ report, about the participants’ physical and emotional status predicted more accurately levels of caregiver burden.

Method: Self-ratings and caregiver informant ratings were obtained from 309 participants of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Care recipients’ health, negative affect, and loneliness were reported by both the caregivers and care recipients for the analyses. Differences between care recipients’ and caregivers’ reports were assessed by t-test. Blockwise multiple regression analysis was computed to assess predictors of caregiver burden.

Results: Caregivers’ reports on the three measures were significantly higher than self-reports. Caregivers’ negative affect and loneliness, not physical health, reported by caregivers predicted higher caregiver burden. Care recipients’ reports did not predict caregiver burden.

Conclusion: Caregivers perceived care recipients’ social and emotional status more negatively, and caregivers’ negative perceptions on care recipients’ well-being status were an important predictor of caregiver burden.  相似文献

8.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the extent to which caregiving burden and satisfaction of primary family caregivers in Israel predict loneliness among their older care recipients.

Method: The study included a convenience sample of 325 dyads of respondents. The short version of Zarit Caregiving Burden Interview and Lawton Caregiving Appraisal measures were used to assess caregiving burden and satisfaction; the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess care recipient's loneliness.

Results: The results showed that greater caregiving burden was significantly correlated with increased loneliness, whereas greater caregiving satisfaction was significantly correlated with lower levels of loneliness.

Conclusion: The literature has broadly addressed the association between caregiving burden and satisfaction and the caregivers’ well-being, whereas this association with regard to care recipients’ well-being has been barely examined. The multivariate analyses showed that caregiving burden was insignificant in explaining loneliness, whereas greater caregiving satisfaction was found significant in explaining lower levels of loneliness. The results and implications for further research and practice are discussed.  相似文献

9.
Objectives: There are many stereotypes about ageing and later life. We looked at the association between expectations and stereotyping of loneliness in old age and actual self-reported loneliness status 8 years later in English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

Method: Data from 4465 ELSA core members aged over 50 who responded to Waves 2 (2004) did not report loneliness in Wave 2, and responded to loneliness questions at least once between Waves 3 and 6 (2006–2012) were used in multivariable repeated measures logit regression analysis to estimate relationship between perceived stereotypes and expectation of loneliness in older age and actual loneliness reported within 8 years of follow-up.

Results: Twenty-four per cent of respondents from the analytical sample agreed at Wave 2 that old age is time of loneliness and 33% expected to be lonely in old age. Loneliness was reported by 11.5% of respondents at Waves 3–6. Both stereotypes and expectation were significantly associated with later reported loneliness (OR 2.65 (95% CI 2.05–3.42) for stereotypes and 2.98 (95% CI 2.33–3.75) for expectations in age-sex adjusted analysis). Both variables significantly predicted future loneliness even when socio-demographic circumstances were taken into account and both variables were mutually adjusted although the effect was reduced (OR's 1.53 (95% CI 1.16–2.01) for stereotypes and 2.38 (95% CI 1.84–3.07) for expectations).

Conclusions: Stereotypes and expectations related to loneliness in the old age were significantly associated with reported loneliness 8 years later. Interventions aimed at changing age-related stereotypes in population may have more impact on reducing loneliness than individually based services.  相似文献

10.
Objectives: Loneliness and social isolation are two important health outcomes among older adults. Current assessment of these outcomes relies on self-report which is susceptible to bias. This paper reports on the relationship between loneliness and objective measures of isolation using a phone monitoring device.

Method: Phone monitors were installed in the homes of 26 independent elderly individuals from the ORCATECH Life Laboratory cohort (age 86 ± 4.5, 88% female) and used to monitor the daily phone usage for an average of 174 days. Loneliness was assessed using the 20-item University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness scale. A mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to model the relationship between loneliness and social isolation, as assessed using the total number of calls, controlling for cognitive function, pain, age, gender, and weekday. A secondary analysis examined the differential effect of loneliness on incoming and outgoing calls.

Results: The average UCLA Loneliness score was 35.3 ± 7.6, and the median daily number of calls was 4. Loneliness was negatively associated with telephone use (IRR = 0.99, p < 0.05). Daily phone use was also associated with gender (IRR = 2.03, p < 0.001) and cognitive status (IRR = 1.51, p < 0.001). The secondary analysis revealed that loneliness was significantly related to incoming (IRR = 0.98, p < 0.01) but not outgoing calls.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate the close relationship between loneliness and social isolation, showing that phone behaviour is associated with emotional state and cognitive function. Because phone behaviour can be monitored unobtrusively, it may be possible to sense loneliness levels in older adults using objective assessments of key aspects of behaviour.  相似文献

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