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1.
Abstract: Parker, Tupling & Brown's Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a self-rating scale for the measurement of perceived rearing attitudes of parents, was translated into Japanese and distributed to final-year high school students and to their parents. For each PBI score, ratings of each parent, made independently by family members, were weakly but significantly correlated. The social desirability score showed only a modest correlation to PBI scores. A factor analysis of the data, limiting the number of the factors retained to two, resulted in factor loading patterns similar to those reported by Parker, Tupling & Brown.  相似文献
2.

Objective

The aim of this article is to review the major instruments proposed for screening for bipolar disorder among clinical or general, adult or paediatric populations. They were developed in order to improve the detection of this illness which, far too often, remains unrecognized. Several of these screening instruments are already translated into several languages and validated.

Methodology

A systematic review of the literature published on this topic up to July 2007 was carried out, using the main electronic data base (Medline). The keywords employed included bipolar disorder, screening, questionnaire, diagnosis and early recognition.

Results

The studies reported here examine whether screening instruments perform similarly in various clinical and non-clinical samples. Different forms of the same questionnaire (like self-report or parent report used in paediatric samples) are sometimes compared, usually showing that parent reports supersede the adolescent self-report form. This is namely the case for the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) which is a brief and widely tested tool, available both in adult and adolescent versions.The MDQ exhibits good psychometric properties in relation to sensitivity and specificity in adult psychiatric samples, but these are more limited in the general population. Moreover, it yields better sensitivity for BP type I than for other bipolar subtypes. This is also true for other screening instruments like the hypomania check list (HCL-32). In order to optimize the sensitivity for bipolar II disorders, proposals for changing the MDQ screening algorithm have been tested.

Discussion

Even though it does not replace a thorough clinical interview, the use of screening tools for bipolar disorder is widely advocated. We discuss the need for clinicians to rely upon instruments allowing for a rapid and economically feasible identification of this disorder. Involving family members in the evaluation process may also increase the rate of recognition. More studies are still required in order to improve diagnostic efficiency of the screening instruments.  相似文献
3.

Objective

Although the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) treatment was designed to include individual therapy and cognitive behavioral group training for patients with depression and/or low perceived social support, only 31% of treated participants received group training. Secondary analyses classified intervention participants into two subgroups, (1) individual therapy only or (2) group training (i.e., coping skills training) plus individual therapy, to determine whether medical outcomes differed in participants who received the combination of group training and individual therapy compared to participants who received individual therapy only or usual care.

Methods

Secondary analyses of 1243 usual care, 781 individual therapy only, and 356 group plus individual therapy myocardial infarction (MI) patients were performed. Depression was diagnosed using modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria; low perceived social support was determined by the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument. Psychosocial treatment followed MI, and for participants with severe or unremitting depression, was supplemented with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate intervention effects on time to first occurrence of the composite end point of death plus nonfatal MI. To control for confounding of group participation with survival (because individual sessions preceded group), we used risk set sampling to match minimal survival time of those receiving or not receiving group training.

Results

Analyses correcting for differential survival among comparison groups showed that group plus individual therapy was associated with a 33% reduction (hazard ratio=0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.92, P=.01) in medical outcome compared to usual care. No significant effect on event-free survival was associated with individual therapy alone. The group training benefit was reduced to 23% (hazard ratio=0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07, P=.11) in the multivariate-adjusted model.

Conclusions

Findings suggest that adding group training to individual therapy may be associated with reduction in the composite end point. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to definitively resolve this issue.  相似文献
4.

Background

D-dimer assays are sensitive but have poor specificity. False positive results lead to extra imaging and hospital admissions.

Objectives

To make a pilot comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of the standard quantitative latex HemosIL D-dimer assay with a newer HemosIL D-dimer HS version designed to have improved specificity.

Patients / Methods

Consecutive patients presenting from the community to an Emergency Department that were investigated for suspected pulmonary embolism using a D-dimer test were included in the study. Standard and D-dimer HS tests were performed. Pulmonary Embolism was diagnosed on the basis of imaging studies or post-mortem at any time from presentation to 90 days thereafter.

Results

The prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism was 4.5% (18/402). The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for the standard quantitative D-dimer test was 100% (81.5 - 100.0), 49.2% (44.1 - 54.3),100% (98.1 - 100.0), and 8.5% (5.1 - 13.0), respectively, and 100% (81.5 - 100.0), 58.3% (53.2 - 63.3),100% (98.4 - 100.0), and 10.1% (6.1 - 15.5), for the D-dimer HS test. There were 35 (16%) fewer ‘false positives’ using the D-dimer HS assay compared with the standard assay.

Conclusions

D-dimer HS has superior specificity to the standard quantitative D-dimer test without any loss of sensitivity. The generation of fewer false positive results should lead to less unnecessary diagnostic imaging; the use of which is associated with increased hospital admissions and length of stay. The HS assay may therefore have significant health economic benefits.  相似文献
5.
The spinal cord is endogenously capable of several forms of adaptive plasticity and learning, including functional re-training, instrumental, and Pavlovian learning. Understanding the mechanisms of spinal plasticity could lead to improved therapies for spinal cord injury and other neuromotor disorders. We describe and demonstrate techniques for eliciting spinal learning in the adult mouse using the Horridge paradigm. In the Horridge paradigm, instrumental learning occurs when a nociceptive leg stimulus is made to be contingent on leg position and the spinal cord learns to maintain the ankle in a flexed position. Using fine-wire intramuscular stimulating electrodes, an inexpensive real-time video tracking system, and DC current stimulation, we were able to elicit instrumental spinal learning from mouse lumbrosacral spinal cords that were functionally isolated from the brain. This technique makes it more feasible to use the powerful genetic manipulations available in mice to better understand the processes of spinal learning, memory, and plasticity.  相似文献
6.
The study of human behaviour ultimately requires the documentation of human movement. In some instances movements can be recorded through a simple button press on a computer input device. In other situations responses can be captured through questionnaire surveys. Nevertheless, there is a need within many neuroscience settings to capture how complex movements unfold over time (human kinematics). Current methods of measuring human kinematics range from accurate but multifarious laboratory configurations to portable but simplistic and time-consuming paper and pen methods. We describe a new system for recording the end-point of human movement that has the power of laboratory measures but the advantages of pen-and-paper tests: the Kinematic Assessment Tool. KAT provides a highly portable system capable of measuring human movement in configurable visual-spatial tasks. The usefulness of the system is shown in a study where 12 participants undertook a tracing and copying task using their preferred and non-preferred hand. The results show that it is possible to capture behaviour within complex tasks and quantify performance using objective measures automatically generated by the KAT system. The utility of these measures was indexed by our ability to distinguish the performance of the preferred and non-preferred hand using a single variable.  相似文献
7.
Volume reductions of the insular cortex have been described in schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether other psychotic disorders such as affective psychosis also exhibit insular cortex abnormalities. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the gray matter volume of the anterior (short) and posterior (long) insular cortices in 162 first-episode patients with various psychotic disorders (46 schizophrenia, 57 schizophreniform disorder, 34 affective psychosis, and 25 other psychoses) and 62 age- and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects. Patients with schizophrenia showed bilateral volume reduction of the anterior and posterior insular cortices compared with controls, but the remaining first-episode psychosis subgroups had normal insular volumes. The volumes of these insular subregions were significantly smaller in schizophrenia patients than in patients with schizophreniform disorder or affective psychoses. There was no association between the insular cortex volume and daily dosage or type of antipsychotic medication in any patient group. These findings suggest that the widespread volume reduction of the insular cortex is specific to established schizophrenia, implicating its role in the neurobiology of clinical characteristics associated with schizophrenia.  相似文献
8.
Recent research indicates that glial cells control complex functions within the nervous system. For example, it has been shown that glial cells contribute to the development of pathological pain, the process of long-term potentiation, and the formation of memories. These data suggest that glial cell activation exerts both adaptive and pathological effects within the CNS. To extend this line of work, the present study investigated the role of glia in spinal learning and spinal learning deficits using the spinal instrumental learning paradigm. In this paradigm rats are transected at the second thoracic vertebra (T2) and given shock to one hind limb whenever the limb is extended (controllable shock). Over time these subjects exhibit an increase in flexion duration that reduces net shock exposure. However, when spinalized rats are exposed to uncontrollable shock or inflammatory stimuli prior to testing with controllable shock, they exhibit a learning deficit. To examine the role of glial in this paradigm, spinal glial cells were pharmacologically inhibited through the use of fluorocitrate. Our results indicate that glia are involved in the acquisition, but not maintenance, of spinal learning. Furthermore, the data indicate that glial cells are involved in the development of both shock and inflammation-induced learning deficits. These findings are consistent with prior research indicating that glial cells are involved in both adaptive and pathological processes within the spinal cord.  相似文献
9.
Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) can be treated by several surgical procedures. However, the choice of procedure and use of instrumentation remain controversial. In this retrospective study of 81 patients with DLSS, 43 patients received decompression and posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, and the surgery for 38 patients was supplemented with posterior transpedicular screw fixation. Both surgeon-based (Fischgrund criteria) and patient-based (Medical Outcome Trust Short-Form 36 [SF-36] questionnaire) standards were used to assess the clinical outcomes. An excellent to good result was achieved in 71.6% of patients and there was no significant difference 6.2 years later between groups with or without instrumentation (Z = 0.0358, p > 0.05). SF-36 data revealed significant postoperative improvement (p < 0.01), and there was no significant difference between the two groups (t = 1.67, p > 0.05). Successful fusion occurred in 87% of patients with instrumentation versus 67% of the patients without instrumentation (χ2 = 4.23, p < 0.05). Thus, surgical treatment of DLSS generally results in satisfactory outcomes. Transpedicular screw fixation may not improve clinical outcomes and the use of posterior instrumentation should be adopted cautiously.  相似文献
10.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is a screening test for dementia consisting of 9 domains. We investigated the relationships between CASI domain scores and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) as shown by positron emission tomography. Fifteen patients with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 15 with mild AD were studied using the [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose method. The 9 CASI domains were classified into four clusters (recent memory, frontal cortex cluster, posterior cortex cluster, and orientation). Using the region of interest method, the recent memory cluster was correlated with the bilateral hippocampal CMRglc, the frontal cortex cluster was correlated with the bilateral anterior and right inferior frontal CMRglc, the posterior cortex cluster was correlated with the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital and occipital CMRglc, and the orientation cluster was correlated with the left anterior frontal CMRglc (Spearman’s correlations). The use of statistical parametric mapping showed that most CASI domains were correlated with CMRglc of the left frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the angular gyrus. These findings show that the mental dysfunction assessed using CASI in AD patients has a neurobiological basis.  相似文献
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