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1.
Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the cognitive control of memory   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
Badre D  Wagner AD 《Neuropsychologia》2007,45(13):2883-2901
Cognitive control mechanisms permit memory to be accessed strategically, and so aid in bringing knowledge to mind that is relevant to current goals and actions. In this review, we consider the contribution of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to the cognitive control of memory. Reviewed evidence supports a two-process model of mnemonic control, supported by a double dissociation among rostral regions of left VLPFC. Specifically, anterior VLPFC (approximately BA 47; inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis) supports controlled access to stored conceptual representations, whereas mid-VLPFC (approximately BA 45; inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis) supports a domain-general selection process that operates post-retrieval to resolve competition among active representations. We discuss the contribution of these control mechanisms across a range of mnemonic domains, including semantic retrieval, recollection of contextual details about past events, resolution of proactive interference in working memory, and task switching. Finally, we consider open directions for future research into left VLPFC function and the cognitive control of memory.  相似文献
2.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism are two neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prominent executive dysfunction, which may be underpinned by disruption within fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuits. We probed executive function in these disorders using a sustained attention task with a validated brain-behaviour basis. Twenty-three children with ADHD, 21 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 18 control children were tested on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). In a fixed sequence version of the task, children were required to withhold their response to a predictably occurring no-go target (3) in a 1-9 digit sequence; in the random version the sequence was unpredictable. The ADHD group showed clear deficits in response inhibition and sustained attention, through higher errors of commission and omission on both SART versions. The HFA group showed no sustained attention deficits, through a normal number of omission errors on both SART versions. The HFA group showed dissociation in response inhibition performance, as indexed by commission errors. On the Fixed SART, a normal number of errors was made, however when the stimuli were randomised, the HFA group made as many commission errors as the ADHD group. Greater slow-frequency variability in response time and a slowing in mean response time by the ADHD group suggested impaired arousal processes. The ADHD group showed greater fast-frequency variability in response time, indicative of impaired top-down control, relative to the HFA and control groups. These data imply involvement of fronto-parietal attentional networks and sub-cortical arousal systems in the pathology of ADHD and prefrontal cortex dysfunction in children with HFA.  相似文献
3.
稳定期双相障碍Ⅰ型患者执行功能及其影响因素研究   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
目的探讨稳定期双相障碍Ⅰ型患者的执行功能损害及其影响因素。方法纳入115例稳定期双相障碍Ⅰ型患者和115名正常对照,采用言语流畅性测验(动物)、威斯康星卡片分类测验(Wisconsin Card SortingTest,WSCT)、汉诺塔(Tower of Hanoi,TOH)评定执行功能,比较组间的差异及分析患者执行功能的影响因素。结果①患者组言语流畅总数、WSCT(分类数、总错误数和持续错误数)、TOH(总分、平均执行时间)成绩均较正常对照差,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。②进一步分层分析,有和无精神病性症状患者组在言语流畅总数、WSCT(分类数、总错误数和持续错误数)和TOH平均执行时间成绩均较对照组差,且前者的TOH总分也较对照组差,上述差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。无精神病性症状组TOH平均计划时间均长于有精神病性症状组和正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。③相关分析显示,患者组WSCT各项指标均与发病年龄相关,言语流畅测验和TOH的各指标均分别与汉密尔顿抑郁量表评分、Young躁狂量表评分或病期相关,上述相关均有统计学意义(P<0.05)但相关均不强。未发现稳定时间长短与任何执行功能指标相关(P>0.05)。结论稳定期双相障碍Ⅰ型患者存在明显的执行功能损害,其中WSCT指标独立于临床症状。  相似文献
4.
People with Williams syndrome (WS) display indiscriminate approach toward strangers in everyday life. People with Down syndrome (DS) can also do so, but to a lesser degree. Inappropriate approach behavior is also characteristic of people with acquired amygdala damage and people with acquired frontal lobe impairment; given this, the developmental disorder of social approach seen in WS and perhaps also DS might be due to poor emotion recognition (due to abnormal amygdala functioning) or poor control of behavior (due to frontal lobe abnormality). A third account of this developmental disorder of social cognition can be couched in terms of heightened salience for social stimuli. We explored these three hypotheses by testing emotion recognition, social approach and frontal lobe functioning in people with WS and DS. Overall, our results were inconsistent with predictions from the amygdala and social salience hypotheses. In contrast, results from a battery of neuropsychological tasks suggested that abnormal social approach in WS and DS in everyday life is best explained by frontal lobe impairment, in particular, poor response inhibition.  相似文献
5.
This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability in the initiation treatment of Concerta (OROS methylphenidate HCl) in Korean children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). One hundred and nineteen children with AD/HD were entered into a multi-center, open-label, four-week trial. The dosage of Concerta was adjusted by the investigators based on symptoms and safety assessments performed on a weekly basis. The safety of the drug and its efficacy for attention, behavior, and cognitive function were assessed. The primary outcome measures for efficacy were the Parent and Teacher IOWA Conners Rating Scales, Peer Interaction Items, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Cognitive tests (Continuous Performance Test, Matched Familiar Figure Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Trail Making Test) were included as the secondary outcome measures. In most participants, OROS methylphenidate was well tolerated. There were significant improvements in attention, behavior, and function as measured by parents, teachers, and investigators. The benefit of the initiation of OROS methylphenidate in children with AD/HD was shown on the cognitive tests as well. These data provide support for the benefit of the once-daily methylphenidate preparation, Concerta in the treatment of Korean children with AD/HD. Children were initiated safely in this short-term trial, and its effectiveness was evident in the behavioral, as well as neuropsychological measurements.  相似文献
6.
注意缺陷多动障碍患者的短时记忆和执行功能研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
目的评估注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的记忆和执行功能。方法采用儿童韦氏智力量表中的数字广度测验和韦氏记忆量表中的逻辑记忆和视觉记忆及威斯康星卡片分类测验分别对90例正常儿童和90例ADHD儿童进行检测。结果ADHD组中的数字广度、逻辑记忆、视觉记忆和威斯康星卡片中的总测验次数、正确反应数、持续错误数、非持续错误数以及分类数与正常组比较具有统计学差异;ADHD组中的三个亚型(多功-冲动型、注意缺陷型及混合型)各项目评分比较,除多动-冲动型的逻辑记忆与其他两个亚型有显著性差异外,其他项目评分比较无显著性差异。结论ADHD存在短时记忆和执行功能损害。  相似文献
7.
非关键部位脑梗死患者的认知功能损伤研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
目的研究单次或两次非关键部位脑梗死(包括皮质下梗死和脑干小脑梗死)的患者其认知功能表现与正常对照之间的差异,了解非关键部位脑梗死患者认知功能受损情况。方法选取符合入组标准的、性别、年龄和受教育年数一一匹配的单次或两次发病的非关键部位脑梗死后5~6个月的患者和正常对照各30例,进行日常生活自理能力量表(ADL)、Hamilton抑郁量表17项评分(HAMD-17)、简易精神状态检查法(MMSE)、加利福尼亚词语学习(CVLT)、逻辑记忆(LM)、复杂图形(FC)、词语流畅性(VF)、结构实例(CP)、数字广度(DS)的评定。结果卒中组患者MMSE总分显著低于对照组(2.7.8±2.4 vs 28.9±0.9,P=0.021);在CVLT总分、VF、认知总分方面与对照组相比存在统计学差异(38.2±7.0 vs 43.1±8.0,P=0.016;43.8±10.6 vs 53.6±11.3,P=0.001;168.3±24.0 vs 188.8±25.4,P=0.002),而在FC、LM、CP、DS方面两组相比没有统计学差异(41.2±7.1 vs 43.4±5.5,P=0.185;21.6±5.6 vs 24.1±5.1,P=0.078;11.0 vs 11.0,P=0.775;13.0±2.4 vs 13.9±2.8,P=0.171)。另外卒中组ADL和HAMD-17的得分显著高于对照组(26±9 vs 20±0,P=0.001;2.00 vs0.00,P=0.000)。结论单次或两次非关键部位脑梗死的患者存在一定的认知功能障碍,主要表现为词语记忆和执行功能方面,尤其以执行功能为著。  相似文献
8.
In the macaque monkey, disconnection syndromes can be produced experimentally either by selective section of axonal pathways or by crossed unilateral asymmetrical ablations. Behavioural investigation of the effects of these disconnections gives information that cannot be derived either from clinical studies or from the effects of bilateral symmetrical ablations in the monkey. Disconnection experiments are particularly suited to the study of the interactions between the components of widespread cortical networks. We propose that memory acquisition is dependent on plastic cortical changes that are widespread, rather than limited to the medial temporal lobe. Further, memory acquisition depends on cortical-subcortical interactions to a greater extent than memory retrieval does. Prefrontal cortex, we suggest, is specifically important in the representation of temporally complex events.  相似文献
9.
Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often exhibit impaired executive function, particularly in experimental tasks that involve response conflict and require adaptive behavioral adjustments. Prior research suggests that these deficits might be due to dysfunction within frontocingulate pathways implicated in response conflict monitoring and the recruitment of cognitive control. However, the temporal unfolding of conflict monitoring impairments in MDD remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we recorded 128-channel event-related potentials while 20 unmedicated participants with MDD and 20 demographically matched, healthy controls performed a Stroop task. Compared to healthy controls, MDD subjects showed larger Stroop interference effects and reduced N2 and N450 amplitudes. Source localization analyses at the time of maximal N450 activity revealed that MDD subjects had significantly reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; Brodmann area 24/32) and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10/46) activation to incongruent relative to congruent trials. Consistent with the heterogeneous nature of depression, follow-up analyses revealed that depressed participants with the lowest level of conflict-related dACC activation 620 ms post-stimulus were characterized by the largest Stroop interference effects (relatively increased slowing and reduced accuracy for incongruent trials). Conversely, MDD participants with relatively stronger dACC recruitment did not differ from controls in terms of interference effects. These findings suggest that for some, but not all individuals, MDD is associated with impaired performance in trials involving competition among different response options, and reduced recruitment of frontocingulate pathways implicated in conflict monitoring and cognitive control.  相似文献
10.
BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that microstructural white matter abnormalities in frontostriatal-limbic tracts are associated with poor response inhibition on the Stroop task in depressed elders. METHOD: Fifty-one elders with major depression participated in a 12-week escitalopram trial. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter regions. Executive function (response inhibition) was assessed with the Stroop task. Voxelwise correlational analysis was used to examine the relationship between Stroop performance and fractional anisotropy. RESULTS: Significant associations between FA and Stroop color word interference were evident in multiple frontostriatal-limbic regions, including white matter lateral to the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and white matter in prefrontal, insular, and parahippocampal regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that microstructural white matter abnormalities of frontostriatal-limbic networks are associated with executive dysfunction of late-life depression. This observation provides the rationale for examination of specific frontostriatal-limbic pathways in the pathophysiology of geriatric depression.  相似文献
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