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We have investigated the comparative effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), the antiestrogen clomiphene citrate (CC), and the progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on seizures induced by systemic injection of kainic acid (15 mg/kg i.p.) in male and female rats. Subcutaneous administration for 10 days of EB (10 micrograms/kg) or high doses of CC (50 mg/kg) significantly potentiated kainate-induced seizures, with this effect being more pronounced in male animals. Doses of 2.5 mg/kg of CC potentiated kainate-induced seizures in male rats but were ineffective in female rats. Low doses of CC (0.5 mg/kg) exhibited a mild anticonvulsant effect in both sexes. Repeated administration of MPA (2.5 mg/kg) partially protected female animals against kainate-induced seizures; in male animals, MPA induced a 30% increase in the seizure severity score, although the difference from the score of control male rats was not significant. These data suggest that sex steroids influence kainate-induced seizures in a sex-dependent manner and that the effects of the antiestrogen CC are dose dependent. This should be taken into account in view of a possible use of CC and MPA in hormonal therapy for seizure disorders.  相似文献
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性激素、催乳素与产后抑郁的相关研究   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
目的:本研究主要探讨产后雌二醇(E2)、催乳素(PRL)变化和产后抑郁症状间的关系。方法:对38名产妇在产程开始前和产后第72小时分别抽取血标本,使用放射免疫法检测产后E2、P和PRL的数量变化,同时用Edingburgh产后抑郁量表(EPDS)、Besk抑郁量表(BDI)、一般健康问卷(GHQ)对产妇在产后第3天和产后第42天进行评定。结果:产后第3天EPDS和BDI量表分值显著高于产后第42天,产后E2变化与EPDS、BDI量表分呈显著负相关,产后P变化和产后第42天GHQ量表分呈显著正相关,PRL变化和产后情绪状况无明显关系。结论:产后内分泌激素变化可能是产后抑郁的病因之一。  相似文献
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Effect of Systemic Estrogen on Seizure Susceptibility in the Immature Animal   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Estrogens have previously been reported to be proconvulsants in adult animals. This study evaluated the effects of acute, high-dose estrogen administration on rate of kindling in immature rats. No significant differences in rate of kindling between the estrogen-treated rats and controls were noted. This study, using the kindling model, demonstrates that estradiol does not have a significant effect on the development of seizures in the immature animal.  相似文献
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Proteins involved in the intramitochondrial trafficking of cholesterol, the first step in steroidogenesis, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), are upregulated in the nervous system after injury. Accordingly, a local increase in the levels of steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone, is observed following traumatic injury in the brain and spinal cord. The expression and activity of aromatase, the enzyme that synthesizes estradiol, is also increased in injured brain areas and its inhibition results in an increased neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that an increase in steroidogenesis is part of an overall mechanism used by the nervous tissue to cope with neurodegenerative conditions. Neural steroidogenesis is the result of a coordinated interaction of neurons and glia. For example, after neural injury, there is an upregulation of StAR in neurons and of PBR in microglia and astroglia. Aromatase is expressed in neurons under basal conditions and is upregulated in reactive astrocytes after injury. Some of the steroids produced by glia are neuroprotective. Progesterone and progesterone derivatives produced by Schwann cells, promote myelin formation and the remyelination and regeneration of injured nerves. In the central nervous system, the steroids produced by glia regulate synaptic function, affect anxiety, cognition, sleep and behavior, and exert neuroprotective and reparative roles. In addition, glial cells are targets for steroids and mediate some of the effects of these molecules on neurons, including the regulation of survival and regeneration.  相似文献
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We provide evidence that callosal projections within the primary somatosensory cortex of the rat are distributed in a detailed pattern which is complementary to the pattern of specific thalamocortical projections to this cortical region.  相似文献
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Hormonal Effects on the Brain   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
Summary: Changes in seizure frequency over the course of the menstrual cycle (i.e., catamenial epilepsy) have long been documented. Ovarian steroid hormones have a number of important short- and long-term effects on the brain that may con- tribute to this phenomenon. In particular, estrogen induces structural and functional changes in hippocampal neurons which may contribute significantly to increasing seizure susceptibility. This article reviews the mechanisms of action of steroid hormones on the basis of findings in animal models, with particular emphasis on the effects of estrogen on the hippocampus.  相似文献
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Recent studies have suggested that testosterone levels are lower in men with Alzheimer's disease and that testosterone treatment improves cognition in older men. Since testosterone can be aromatized to estrogen, testosterone's effects could be due to conversion into estrogen. We treated aged male rats with either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the latter of which is not aromatized to estrogen, in order to determine whether these treatments improve spatial working and reference memory as assessed in the water radial arm maze. We also tested whether such effects are related to beta-amyloid levels in the hippocampus or neurotrophin levels in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, or striatum. Aged rats made more errors than young rats on all memory measures. Testosterone, but not DHT, improved working memory and decreased hippocampal NGF protein in aged rats, while having no effect on beta-amyloid. However, higher beta-amyloid levels were correlated with poorer working memory performance in young rats. Neurotrophin levels in entorhinal cortex were positively correlated with errors for all memory measures in androgen-treated rats. Similar to findings in human studies, in our study androgen treatment lowered circulating estradiol levels in aged rats, suggesting that androgen treatment exerts feedback to the hypothalamic pituitary axis and that conversion to estrogen may not be the underlying biological mechanism of testosterone's effects on memory and growth factor levels. The ratio of estradiol to testosterone, or the actions of the aromatase enzyme itself, may be responsible for the observed effects. These data support the hypothesis that testosterone therapy in aging men may provide positive effects on cognition and that neural regions that are linked to cognition, such as the hippocampus and/or entorhinal cortex, may be involved in such effects.  相似文献
9.
Reproductive and sexual dysfunction in men with epilepsy has been attributed to androgen deficiency. Low serum free testosterone (FT) levels occur in both hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been implicated. Proposed mechanisms include induction of increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) resulting in decreased FT, as well as dysfunction or premature aging of the hypothalamopituitary-gonadal axis. In an investigation comparing serum reproductive steroid levels among 20 men receiving phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy for complex partial seizures, 21 untreated men with complex partial seizures, and 20 age-matched normal controls, total estradiol levels were significantly higher in the PHT group (56.3 +/- 29.4 pg/ml, mean +/- SD) than in the untreated (32.4 +/- 27.4 pg/ml, p less than 0.01) and normal control (34.3 +/- 12.7 pg/ml, p less than 0.05) groups. The physiologically active non-SHBG-bound serum estradiol levels were also significantly higher in the medicated group (45.1 +/- 21.7 pg/ml) than in the untreated (29.9 +/- 17.2 pg/ml, p less than 0.01) and normal control (31.1 +/- 11.4 pg/ml, p = 0.05) groups. These findings suggest that PHT may lower FT by induction of aromatase, enhancing FT conversion to estradiol, as well as SHBG synthetase. Estradiol exerts a potent inhibitory influence on luteinizing hormone secretion and has been suggested to play a major role in negative feedback in men as well as women. Suppression of LH secretion results in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Chronically low FT leads to testicular failure and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Finally, estradiol has been shown to produce premature aging of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, which secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone.  相似文献
10.
Catamenial epileptics show particular vulnerability to seizures during menstruation and at the time of ovulation, when circulating estradiol (E(2))/progesterone (P(4)) ratios are high. The present study tested the hypothesis that alterations in neuronal excitability induced by E(2) and P(4) affect thresholds and the development of secondary generalization in kindled rats. METHODS: The effects of endogenous hormones secreted during the estrous cycle, and of exogenous exposure to E(2) and P(4) after ovariectomy (OVX), with and without adrenalectomy (ADX), were tested. Kindling electrodes were implanted in the basolateral amygdala or dorsal hippocampus in adult female rats. The anticonvulsive effects of P(4) on amygdala kindled seizures were also determined in intact subjects. RESULTS: In intact females, afterdischarge thresholds (ADTs) in the amygdala were significantly lower (306+/-48 microA; peak to peak) at mid-day proestrus, just prior to ovulation, when serum E(2) is elevated. ADTs were more than twofold higher (808+/-95 microA) during metestrus, coincident with peak ovarian P(4) secretion. In OVX females, amygdala thresholds were lowest with E(2) replacement and highest with P(4) replacement. Hippocampal ADT was unaffected by hormone replacement after OVX. The rates of both amygdala and hippocampal kindling were significantly accelerated by E(2) and slowed by P(4). E(2) replacement significantly increased serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. In ADX rats, CORT replacement increased kindling rates, synergizing with the effects of E(2). In fully kindled animals, P(4) administration suppressed motor seizures in approximately 60% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: E(2) lowers amygdala ADTs and facilitates kindling. This effect may involve both direct E(2) effects and indirect effects mediated via increased levels of circulating corticosterone. P(4) raises amygdala ADTs, slows kindling development and suppresses fully kindled seizures. Hence, P(4) may have potential therapeutic value for women with catamenial epilepsy.  相似文献
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