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1.
Remission of Seizures and Relapse in Patients with Epilepsy   总被引:47,自引:47,他引:29  
In a longitudinal study of patients with epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, we found that the probability of being in remission (at least 5 consecutive years seizure-free, and continuing) at 20 years after diagnosis was 70%. The rates for remission we encountered were generally higher than those previously reported. We believe that the better prognosis in our series results from inclusion of all incidence cases in a defined population, beginning at the initial diagnosis of epilepsy. Prognosis for remission of epilepsy is poor in patients with associated neurologic dysfunction identified from birth. Patients with idiopathic seizures and survivors of postnatally acquired epilepsy have better prospects for eventual remission. The probability of remission is highest in patients with generalized-onset seizures diagnosed before 10 years of age. Prognosis is less favorable for those with partial complex seizures and adult-onset epilepsy.  相似文献
2.
Approximately three-quarters of epileptic patients seen in consultation by specialists can easily be assigned to one of the diagnostic categories of the International League against Epilepsy. When patient age is taken into account, such a distribution shows that partial epilepsy is more common than generalized epilepsy (62% versus 38%) in patients of all ages, especially in those over 15 years of age (78% versus 22%). In contrast, generalized epilepsy is more frequent in subjects under 15 than partial epilepsy (55% versus 45%). In this younger age group the rarity of partial epilepsy is primarily due to the infrequency of temporal lobe epilepsy (21% of cases, as opposed to 56% in subjects over 15), whereas both primary and secondary generalized epilepsy contribute to the frequency of generalized epilepsy in this group.  相似文献
3.
Forty-seven patients with structural brain lesions on neuroimaging studies and partial epilepsy intractable to medical therapy were studied. Prolonged noninvasive interictal and ictal EEG recording was performed, followed by more focused mapping using chronically implanted subdural electrode plates. Surgical procedures included lesion biopsy, maximal lesion excision, and/or resection of zones of epileptogenesis depending on accessibility and involvement of speech or other functional areas. The epileptogenic zone involved exclusively the region adjacent to the structural lesion in 11 patients. It extended beyond the lesion in 18 patients. Eighteen other patients had remote noncontiguous zones of epileptogenesis. Postoperative control of epilepsy was accomplished in 17 of 18 patients (94%) with complete lesion excision regardless of extent of seizure focus excision. Postoperative control of epilepsy was accomplished in 5 of 6 patients (83%) with incomplete lesion excision but complete seizure focus excision and in 12 of 23 patients (52%) with incomplete lesion excision and incomplete focus excision. The extent of lesion resection was strongly associated with surgical outcome either in itself (p less than 0.003), or in combination with focus excision. Focus resection was marginally associated with surgical outcome as a dichotomous variable (p = 0.048) and showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07) only as a three-level outcome variable. We conclude that structural lesions are associated with zones of epileptogenesis in neighboring and remote areas of the brain. Maximum resection of the lesion offers the best chance at controlling intractable epilepsy; however, seizure control is achieved in many patients by carefully planned subtotal resection of lesions or foci.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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Determinants of Mortality in Status Epilepticus   总被引:26,自引:26,他引:10  
Summary: Using univariate and multivariate regression analysis, we studied seizure duration, seizure type, age, etiologies, other clinical features, and mortality among 253 adults with status epilepticus (SE) admitted to the Medical College of Virginia. Cerebral vascular disease and discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were the most prominent causes of SE, each accounting for ∼22% of all patients in the series. The other principle etiologies were alcohol withdrawal, idiopathic, anoxia, metabolic disorders, hemorrhage, infection, tumor, drug overdose, and trauma. When the patients were divided into two groups, the group with SE lasting < 1 h had a lower mortality as compared with seizure duration ≥ 1 h. Low mortality rates were noted in alcohol and AED discontinuation etiologies. Anoxia and increasing age were significantly correlated with higher mortality. The mortality rates of partial and generalized SE were not significantly different. Race and sex did not affect mortality significantly. Our findings represent the first multivariate analysis of predictive indicators of mortality in SE and demonstrate that specific factors influence mortality rate in SE.  相似文献
6.
Summary: In a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group trial, we compared topiramate (TPM) with placebo as addon therapy in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. TPM was titrated either to the target dosage of 800 mg/ day [400 mg twice daily (b. i. d.)] or to the maximal tolerated dose if lower. Twenty-eight (28) patients were randomized to each treatment group. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the net median percent reduction relative to placebo in average monthly seizure rate was 54% for patients in the TPM group (p < 0.001). None of the placebo-treated patients and 43% of the patients treated with TPM experienced 250% reduction in seizures (p = 0.001), and 36% of patients assigned to TPM had a 75–100% reduction in seizures (p < 0.01). Secondarily generalized seizures were also significantly reduced in the TPM group (p = 0.044). The most common adverse events (AE) reported in the TPM group were fatigue, impaired concentation, weight loss, dizziness, and paresthesias. AE occurring either during the rapid titration of TPM or at high dosages led 21% of TPM-treated patients to withdraw from the study. Half of these occurred during the titration study period. No serious AE or clinically important changes in clinical laboratory measures were observed. The present study further establishes the favorable profile and good benefithisk ratio of TPM in resistant partial epilepsy.  相似文献
7.
Epilepsy and Mortality Rate and Cause of Death   总被引:25,自引:25,他引:2  
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Prevalence of the Epilepsies in Nigerian Africans: A Community-Based Study   总被引:24,自引:24,他引:4  
A door-to-door survey to detect commonly occurring neurologic diseases was carried out in Igbo-Ora, a large Nigerian town with a population of approximately 20,000. Effective health care facilities have been operating in the community since 1963. Primary health care workers and nondoctor personnel administered a complete census, a screening questionnaire, and a simple screening neurologic examination. The pretested screening questionnaire had been shown in a pilot study to have a sensitivity of 95% for identifying those with epilepsy. Individuals positive on the screening phase of the survey were evaluated by neurologists and neurosurgeons, who used well-defined criteria to make the diagnosis. There were 101 (48 males and 53 females) who suffered from active epilepsy (5.3 cases/1,000) on prevalence day. The highest age-specific prevalence ratios occurred in those below age 20. The most common of the identifiable seizure types was complex partial seizures (52 cases). The prevalence ratio of epilepsy in this Nigerian town (with an effective health care system) is similar to that reported in some developed countries and several times lower than figures derived from studies in developing countries. These data suggest that an improved health care system would probably reduce the prevalence and burden of epilepsy in developing countries.  相似文献
10.
Idiopathic Photosensitive Occipital Lobe Epilepsy   总被引:24,自引:24,他引:2  
Summary: We studied 10 neurologically normal patients (8 females, 2 males) aged 8–30 years (mean 17 years) who had recurrent episodes of visually induced occipital seizures. Television and computer screens were the main triggers. Seizure onset occurred between the ages of 5 and 17 years (mean 11 years). All seizures were stimulus related and began with elementary visual symptoms, followed in most patients by a slow clustering of cephalicpain, epigastric discomfort, and vomiting, with either normal or only mildly impaired responsiveness. EEG fea-tures included normal background activity, occipital spikes and waves, and a photoparoxysmal response which could be occipital, generalized, or both. Four pa-tients also showed spontaneous generalized epileptiform abnormalities, and 3 had rolandic spikes. An Oz electrode was critical in identifying epileptiform activity in some patients. Complete seizure control was achieved in most patients with monotherapy, although occasional stimulus-related seizures occurred in 3 patients who showed a wider range of photosensitivity. These patients have an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy with age-related onset and specific mode of precipitation. Although this type of epilepsy has been reported previously, it has remained underrecognized, probably because it is difficult to differentiate clinically from migraine or from nonreflex childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy.  相似文献
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