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BACKGROUND: Reelin and GAD(67) expression is downregulated in cortical interneurons of schizophrenia (SZ) patients. This downregulation is probably mediated by epigenetic hypermethylation of the respective promoters caused by the selective increase of DNA-methyltransferase 1 in GABAergic neurons. Mice receiving methionine (MET) provide an epigenetic model for neuropathologies related to SZ. We studied whether MET-induced epigenetic reelin promoter hypermethylation and the associated behavioral alterations can be reduced by valproate in doses that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). METHODS: Mice treated with either methionine (MET) (5.2 mmol/kg/SC/twice daily) or valproate (1.5 mmol/kg/SC/twice daily) or MET+ valproate combination were tested for prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) and social interaction (SI). S-adenosylmethionine, acetylated histone 3, reelin promoter methylation, and reelin mRNA were assayed in the frontal cortex. RESULTS: Valproate enhances acetylated histone 3 content, and prevents MET-induced reelin promoter hypermethylation, reelin mRNA downregulation, and PPI and SI deficits. Imidazenil, a positive allosteric modulator at GABA(A) receptors containing alpha(5) subunits but inactive at receptors including alpha(1) subunits, normalizes MET-induced behavioral changes. CONCLUSION: This MET-induced epigenetic mouse models the neurochemical and behavioral aspects of SZ that can be corrected by positively modulating the action of GABA at alpha(5)-containing GABA(A) receptors with imidazenil or by inhibiting HDACs with valproate, thus opening exciting new avenues for treatment of epigenetically modified chromatin in SZ morbidity.  相似文献
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Traditionally, it has been thought that schizophrenia results from the interaction of predisposing genes and hazardous environmental factors. In this article, the paradigm of "genes plus environment" is challenged, and a new interpretation is presented, in which the emphasis on DNA sequence variation is shared with epigenetic misregulation as a critical etiopathogenic factor. Partial epigenetic stability (metastability) of gene regulation is consistent with various nonmendelian irregularities of schizophrenia, such as the presence of clinically indistinguishable sporadic and familial cases, discordance of monozygotic twins, coincidence of peaks of susceptibility with major endocrine rearrangements, and fluctuating course of disease severity, among others. It is also suggested that stochastic epigenetic events might account for a substantial portion of phenotypic variance, which traditionally has been ascribed to environmental effects. This theoretic essay is constructed according to the principle of Hegelian dialectic reasoning (thesis-antithesis-synthesis), which serves the goal of showing that the best outcome of molecular genetic studies in schizophrenia (and perhaps other complex diseases) can be expected when components that effect chromatin structure and gene regulation are taken into account and investigated comprehensively.  相似文献
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H-Tx rats have fetal-onset inherited hydrocephalus. Linkage analysis has determined the genetics is complex, with at least three loci associated with hydrocephalus. In addition, maternal and/or intrauterine factors influence the frequency of expression. The aim of this study was to characterize nongenetic (epigenetic) factors that affect hydrocephalus in this strain. Groups of primiparous and multiparous females were used to breed fetuses for examination in utero. Multiparous females were manipulated to have either gestation with lactation or, by removal of pups at birth, gestation without lactation. In addition, hydrocephalus expression in postnatal rats from the breeding colony was analyzed for primiparous and multiparous females. The latter were subdivided according to the interval between the litter examined and the previous litter. There was no particular uterine position or horn that favored hydrocephalus and hydrocephalic fetuses were the same weight as normal littermates. The frequency of hydrocephalus was 16-20% in primiparous females and twofold higher in multiparous females that were lactating during pregnancy. Removal of the suckling pups prevented this increase. The severity of hydrocephalus was measured on 1-mm-thick fixed brain slices. Fetuses from lactating females had hydrocephalus that was significantly more severe than the nonlactating groups. However, all fetus groups had hydrocephalus that was very much less severe than the postnatal pups, suggesting that severity increases after birth. It is concluded that there is an epigenetic factor that increases the frequency of inherited hydrocephalus in fetuses if suckling pups are present during gestation. Future experiments will examine possible mechanisms for this genotype-environment interaction.  相似文献
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Ependymal tumours are histologically and clinically varied lesions. Numerical abnormalities of chromosome 9 are frequently associated with these tumours. Nevertheless, the three important tumour suppressor genes located in this chromosome, CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p14 ARF, have not been reported to be commonly altered in them. We studied promoter methylation of these genes, an important mechanism associated with gene silencing in a series of 152 ependymal tumours of WHO grades I to III. Methylation status of the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p14 ARF promoters was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and the genetic results were correlated to clinicopathological features. We observed promoter methylation for CDKN2A in 21% (26/123) of tumours, for CDKN2B in 32% (23/71) and p14 ARF in 21% (23/108). For all three genes, posterior fossa ependymomas were less frequently methylated in paediatric patients than in adults. For CDKN2B, extracranial tumours were more frequently methylated than intracranial ones. For CDKN2B and p14 ARF, methylation was more frequent in low-grade tumours; the reverse was observed for CDKN2A. CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p14 ARF promoters were methylated in 21-32% of the tumours. Frequencies of methylation varied according to clinicopathological features. This suggests a role for these genes in ependymoma tumorigenesis.  相似文献
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Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyses the ATP-dependent formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. To determine whether dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells from chick embryos express the enzyme in vivo or in vitro, GS was detected by immunocytochemical reaction either in vibratome sections of DRG or in dissociated DRG cell cultures. The immunocytochemical detection of GS showed that in vivo the DRG taken from chick embryos at day 10 (E10), E14, E18 or from chickens after hatching were free of any GS-positive ganglion cells; in contrast, in neuron-enriched cultures of DRG cells grown in vitro at E10, virtually all the neuronal cells (98.6 +/- 1.0%) express GS at 3, 5 or 7 days of culture. In mixed DRG cell cultures, only 83.6+/-4.6% of the neurons displayed a GS-immunoreactivity. In both culture conditions, neither the presence of horse serum nor the age of the culture appeared to affect the percentage of neurons which displayed a GS-immunoreactivity. After [3H]glutamine uptake, radioautographs revealed that only 80% of the neurons were labelled in neuron-enriched DRG cell cultures while 96% of the neurons were radioactive in mixed DRG cell cultures. Furthermore the most heavily [3H]glutamine-labelled neurons were exclusively found in mixed DRG cell cultures. Combination of both immunocytochemical detection of GS and radioautography after [3H]glutamine uptake showed that strongly GS-immunostained neurons corresponded to poorly radioactive ones and vice versa. When skeletal muscle extract (ME) was added to DRG cell cultures, the number of GS-positive neurons was reduced to 77.5 +/- 2.5% in neuron-enriched cultures or to 43.6 +/- 3.8% in mixed DRG cell cultures; in both types of culture, the intensity of the neuronal immunostaining was depressed. Furthermore, combined action of ME and non-neuronal cells potentiates the enzyme repression exerted separately by ME or non-neuronal cells. Since GS-immunoreactivity is expressed in DRG cells grown in vitro, but not in vivo, it is suggested that microenvironmental factors influence the expression of GS. More specifically, the repression of GS by primary sensory neurons grown in vitro may be strongly induced by soluble factors present in skeletal muscle, and to a lesser extent in brain, and potentiated by non-neuronal cells.  相似文献
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Acetylation/deactylation of histones is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and chromatin remodeling. We have previously demonstrated that the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) protects cortical neurons from oxygen/glucose deprivation in vitro which is mediated--at least in part--via the up regulation of gelsolin expression. Here, we demonstrate that TSA treatment dose-dependently enhances histone acetylation in brains of wildtype mice as evidenced by immunoblots of total brain lysates and immunocytochemical staining. Along with increased histone acetylation dose-dependent up regulation of gelsolin protein was observed. Levels of filamentous actin were largely decreased by TSA pre-treatment in brain of wildtype but not gelsolin-deficient mice. When exposed to 1 h filamentous occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by reperfusion TSA pre-treated wildtype mice developed significantly smaller cerebral lesion volumes and tended to have improved neurological deficit scores compared to vehicle-treated mice. These protective effects could not be explained by apparent changes in physiological parameters. In contrast to wildtype mice, TSA pre-treatment did not protect gelsolin-deficient mice against MCAo/reperfusion suggesting that enhanced gelsolin expression is an important mechanism by which TSA protects against ischemic brain injury. Our results suggest that HDAC inhibitors such as TSA are a promising therapeutic strategy for reducing brain injury following cerebral ischemia.  相似文献
8.
The role of epigenetics in modulating gene expression in the development of organs and tissues and in disease states is becoming increasingly evident. Epigenetics refers to the several mechanisms modulating inheritable changes in gene expression that are independent of modifications of the primary DNA sequence and include post-translational modifications of nucleosomal histones, changes in DNA methylation, and the role of microRNA. This review focuses on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in oligodendroglial lineage cells. The biological effects that post-translational modifications of critical residues in the N-terminal tails of nucleosomal histones have on oligodendroglial cells are reviewed, and the implications for disease and repair are critically discussed.  相似文献
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