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排序方式: 共有1119条查询结果,搜索用时 35 毫秒
1.
The Ictal Bradycardia Syndrome   总被引:10,自引:10,他引:4  
2.
前交通动脉瘤的显微外科手术治疗   总被引:9,自引:4,他引:5  
目的探讨前交通动脉瘤的解剖学特点、手术时机、手术中注意事项以及并发症的预防。方法采用显微外科手术治疗前交通动脉瘤70例(73个),手术入路以优势供血侧翼点入路为主。共夹闭动脉瘤65个,包裹7个,大部分切除并夹闭1个。62例术中采用了血管临时阻断技术。对于大型或瘤体复杂指向的前交通动脉瘤,术中进行脑电图和体感诱发电位监测。8例同时行终板造瘘。结果本组70例中,56例术后行DSA检查,绝大多数动脉瘤夹闭满意。出院时治疗结果好62例,差6例,死亡2例。结论对于急性期前交通动脉瘤,Hunt—HessⅠ-Ⅱ级的病例应尽早手术,Ⅲ级的病例应争取在出血后3d内手术。Ⅳ-Ⅴ级的病例应在血管造影的同时用弹簧圈栓塞,若条件不允许,则应先给予合理的内科治疗,等病情稳定后再考虑手术。优势供血侧翼点入路有利于临时阻断血管,降低动脉瘤未成熟破裂的风险。术中脑电图和体感诱发电位监测可以早期发现脑缺血,防止发生偏瘫。  相似文献
3.
James O. McNamara 《Epilepsia》1989,30(S1):S13-S18
Summary: The greatest value of the kindling model for new therapy of epilepsy almost certainly lies in elucidating the molecular basis of its development and persistence. Such an understanding may provide a foundation for therapies aimed at prevention or perhaps even cure of some forms of human epilepsy.  相似文献
4.
Carunchio I  Pieri M  Ciotti MT  Albo F  Zona C 《Epilepsia》2007,48(4):654-662
PURPOSE: The present study explores the hypothesis that the antiepileptic mechanism of action of levetiracetam (LEV) is related to effects on alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels in mouse cortical neurons in culture. METHODS: The neurons were subjected to the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp recording technique and were 8-12 days old in culture. RESULTS: Kainate elicited concentration-dependent (EC(50)= 80 microM) inward currents in all the patched cells. LEV (5-200 microM) itself did not induce inward or outward currents on all patched neurons, whereas it was effective on the kainate- and AMPA-induced current because it significantly decreased the amplitude of these currents. LEV was also able to significantly decrease the total membrane conductance during kainate perfusion, indicating that its effect was not dependent on the cellular voltage membrane potential. Further evidence that LEV modulated the ionotropic non-NMDA receptors came from the analysis of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). In fact, LEV significantly decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of mEPSCs, as shown by the relative cumulative distributions. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that AMPA receptors are modulated by LEV because a significant decrease in the kainate- and AMPA-induced currents and a decrease in amplitude and in frequency of mEPSCs have been observed in cortical neurons in culture. The described effect of LEV on AMPA receptors in cortical neurons is probably due to the etheromeric composition of the receptors and may be considered as a possible new antiepileptic mechanism of action.  相似文献
5.
Summary: Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of local perfusion of diazepam (DZP) in suppression of EEG spikes and behavioral seizures produced by bicuculline methiodide (BMI) applied to rat sensory motor cortex and hippocampus.
Methods : Data were obtained from 37 rats implanted with EEG head plugs and perfusion cannulas. BMI 4 m M , 5 μl was infused on neocortex through the epidural space in 23 rats. BMI 0.1 m M , 2 μl was infused into the left hippocampus in 14 rats.
Results : DZP 0.75–1.0 mg markedly reduced the spiking to a level of 9.9 ± 15.8% of baseline for DZP as compared with 90.2 ± 57.9% of baseline for vehicle-treated rats. DZP reduced spiking in a hippocampal BMI focus to 1.9 ± 2.4% of baseline spiking, as compared with 98.0 ± 95.6% of that in vehicle-treated animals. The amount of spread of solution was estimated with methylene blue (MB) injections. Ictal events also were attenuated. In most of the animals, systemic levels of DZP were unmeasurable and injection on the contralateral side did not reduce spiking.
Conclusions : These findings suggest that focal application of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain may be a useful new avenue for therapy of intractable partial seizures.  相似文献
6.
Xing GG  Liu FY  Qu XX  Han JS  Wan Y 《Experimental neurology》2007,208(2):323-332
Our previous study has reported that electroacupuncture (EA) at low frequency of 2 Hz had greater and more prolonged analgesic effects on mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia than that EA at high frequency of 100 Hz in rats with neuropathic pain. However, how EA at different frequencies produces distinct analgesic effects on neuropathic pain is unclear. Neuronal plastic changes in spinal cord might contribute to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we investigated changes of spinal synaptic plasticity in the development of neuropathic pain and its modulation by EA in rats with neuropathic pain. Field potentials of spinal dorsal horn neurons were recorded extracellularly in sham-operated rats and in rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL). We found for the first time that the threshold for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked potentials in dorsal horn was significantly lower in SNL rats than that in sham-operated rats. The threshold for evoking the C-fiber-evoked field potentials was also significantly lower, and the amplitude of the field potentials was higher in SNL rats as compared with those in the control rats. EA at low frequency of 2 Hz applied on acupoints ST 36 and SP 6, which was effective in treatment of neuropathic pain, induced long-term depression (LTD) of the C-fiber-evoked potentials in SNL rats. This effect could be blocked by N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and by opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. In contrast, EA at high frequency of 100 Hz, which was not effective in treatment of neuropathic pain, induced LTP in SNL rats but LTD in sham-operated rats. Unlike the 2 Hz EA-induced LTD in SNL rats, the 100 Hz EA-induced LTD in sham-operated rats was dependent on the endogenous GABAergic and serotonergic inhibitory system. Results from our present study suggest that (1) hyperexcitability in the spinal nociceptive synaptic transmission may occur after nerve injury, which may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain; (2) EA at low or high frequency has a different effect on modulating spinal synaptic plasticities in rats with neuropathic pain. The different modulation on spinal LTD or LTP by low- or high-frequency EA may be a potential mechanism of different analgesic effects of EA on neuropathic pain. LTD of synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn in SNL rats may contribute to the long-lasting analgesic effects of EA at 2 Hz.  相似文献
7.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a heritable disorder of GABA degradation characterized by ataxia, psychomotor retardation and seizures. To date, there is no effective treatment for SSADH deficiency. We tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet (KD) would improve outcome in an animal model of SSADH deficiency, the SSADH knockout mouse (Aldh5a1-/-). Using a 4:1 ratio of fat to combined carbohydrate and protein KD we set out to compare the general phenotype, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology and [35S]TBPS binding in both Aldh5a1-/- mice and control (Aldh5a1+/+) mice. We found that the KD prolonged the lifespan of mutant mice by >300% with normalization of ataxia, weight gain and EEG compared to mutants fed a control diet. Aldh5a1-/- mice showed significantly reduced mIPSC frequency in CA1 hippocampal neurons as well as significantly decreased [35S]TBPS binding in all brain areas examined. In KD fed mutants, mIPSC activity normalized and [35S]TBPS binding was restored in the cortex and hippocampus. The KD appears to reverse toward normal the perturbations seen in Aldh5a1-/- mice. Our data suggest that the KD may work in this model by restoring GABAergic inhibition. These data demonstrate a successful experimental treatment for murine SSADH deficiency using a KD, giving promise to the idea that the KD may be successful in the clinical treatment of SSADH deficiency.  相似文献
8.
Several lines of evidence have shown that in some brain regions brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for long-term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic model of memory storage. In the present work we evaluate the role of BDNF in LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn, a synaptic model of pain memory. We found that spinal application of BDNF-induced LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials with a long latency, lasting for > 8 h, and the effect was blocked by either tyrosine kinase inhibitor (K252a) or BNDF scavenger (TrkB-Fc). The potentiation produced by BDNF was occluded by late-phase LTP (L-LTP) but not by early-phase LTP (E-LTP) induced by electrical stimulation. Pretreatment of K252a or TrkB-Fc selectively blocked spinal L-LTP induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but not E-LTP. BDNF-induced LTP was completely abolished by the protein synthesis inhibitor (anisomycin), by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker (MK-801), by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) or by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (SB203580) but not by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibitor (PDTC) also suppressed spinal BDNF-LTP. The results suggest that BDNF play a crucial role in protein synthesis-dependent L-LTP in spinal dorsal horn via activation of ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways.  相似文献
9.
BACKGROUND: Studies have implicated prefrontal dopamine in cortical information filtering. Deficit in stimulus filtering, an endophenotype of schizophrenia, can be demonstrated using the auditory P50 paired-click gating paradigm. The role of prefrontal dopamine on P50 gating was investigated, using catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) valine (val)(158)methionine (met) polymorphism as a predictor of prefrontal dopamine activity. METHODS: Twenty-five comparison and 42 schizophrenia subjects underwent P50 gating measurement and COMT genotyping. RESULTS: In the combined sample, COMT polymorphism accounted for a unique 10% of gating variance (p = .02), after variance due to diagnosis, smoking status, and antipsychotic use was removed. Valine homozygous individuals exhibited the greatest gating deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Valine homozygous individuals are more likely to have gating deficits, supporting COMT as a genetic determinant of the P50 endophenotype, as well as a role for prefrontal dopamine in auditory filtering.  相似文献
10.
The basic science of memory as it applies to epilepsy   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Summary   The mechanisms of memory delineated by the model of long-term potentiation (LTP) are similar to those underlying epileptogenesis by kindling. Memory is impaired by seizures and epilepsy. High frequency neural activity is important in both memory formation and seizures. Both kindling and LTP are most effectively induced by high-frequency stimuli, involve synaptic facilitation, and share overlapping molecular mechanisms, such as N-methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced calcium cascade and protein synthesis. The hippocampus contributes to both through its role in memory formation and its low seizure threshold.  相似文献
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