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1.
Sodium Valproate: Monotherapy and Polytherapy   总被引:19,自引:19,他引:3  
Summary: Of the 605 patients seen since 1973, 336 patients have been treated with sodium valproate (VPA) alone or in combination with drugs other than carbamazepine (CBZ). Of these 336, 240 have been on monotherapy, of whom 200 are seizure-free. Follow up has been longer than 3 years in 78%. Complete control of seizures has been achieved in more than 80% of patients with absence, myoclonic, and primary tonic-clonic seizures, in 72% of those with photosenstivie epilepsy including eyelid myoclonia, and in 47% of partial epilepsies, for which carbamazepine was the initial drug of choice. Only 21% of those with myoclonic astatic epilepsy have become free from seizures. At first VPA was given twice daily, but in recent years it was given once daily, as this was more effective. Reasons for failure of VPA therapy are given. Side effects in 436 patients (100 more patients were added for this assessment only) were uncommon, though where they did occur, weight increase was the most frequent. Platelets were reduced without clinical problems. There were no severe hepatic disorders. Serum levels were assessed in seizure-free patients, and the optimum level was between 60 and 120 mg/L (most patients received between 20 and 30 mg/kg). VPA was given during 30 pregnancies, and there was no evidence of teratogenicity on monotherapy. VPA is most effective in primary generalized epilepsy, especially if given as the sole antiepileptic drug. If the daily dose does not exceed 40 mg/kg or 2.5 g, it is singularly free from serious side effects.  相似文献
2.
Quality of Life of People with Epilepsy: A European Study   总被引:18,自引:18,他引:18  
Summary: Purpose: To study the impact of epilepsy and its treatment on people with epilepsy in Europe. We therefore aimed to collect data from as many countries as possible.
Methods: Clinical and demographic details and information about psychosocial functioning was collected using self-completed questionnaires mailed to members of epilepsy support groups.
Results: Quality of life data was collected from >5,000 patients living in 15 countries in Europe. Over a third of all respondents had frequent seizures, and a fifth believed that their seizures were not well enough controlled by antiepileptic medication. Reported levels of side effects from medication were high. A significant number of respondents reported changing their medication because of side effects or poor control. Respondents reported that epilepsy and its treatment had a significant impact on a number of different aspects of their daily lives. Half of all respondents felt stigmatised by their epilepsy. There were significant differences by seizure type and frequency in the way respondents scored on measures of the perceived impact of their condition, the stigma associated with it and their health status as measured by a generic scale, the SF36.
Conclusions: This study confirms the findings of previous smaller-scale studies that reducing side effects and achieving better control of seizures are key to improving the quality of life of people with epilepsy, as is reducing the stigma and handicap associated with it.  相似文献
3.
Effectiveness of First Antiepileptic Drug   总被引:14,自引:14,他引:7  
PURPOSE: To investigate the interaction among efficacy, tolerability, and overall effectiveness of the first antiepileptic drug (AED) in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: The 470 patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up from January 1984 at a single center. Outcome was classified as seizure freedom for at least the last year or failure of initial treatment because of inadequate seizure control, adverse events, or for other reasons. RESULTS: Overall, 47% of patients became seizure-free with the first prescribed AED. A higher proportion (p = 0.025) of patients with symptomatic or cryptogenic epilepsy changed treatment because of intolerable side effects (17%), and a lower proportion (p = 0.007) became seizure-free (43.5%) compared with those with idiopathic epilepsy (8.5% and 58%, respectively). Most patients (83%) received carbamazepine (CBZ; n = 212), sodium valproate (VPA; n = 101), or lamotrigine (LTG; n = 78). The majority of seizure-free patients required only a moderate daily AED dose (93.1% with < or =800 mg CBZ, 91.3% with < or =1,500 mg VPA, 93.8% with < or =300 mg LTG), with commonest dose ranges being 400-600 mg for CBZ, 600-1,000 mg for VPA, and 125-200 mg for LTG. Most withdrawals due to poor tolerability also occurred at or below these dose levels (CBZ: 98%; VPA: 100%; LTG: 75%). Patients taking CBZ (27%) had a higher incidence of adverse events necessitating a change of treatment than did those treated with VPA (13%) or LTG (10%), resulting in fewer becoming seizure-free (CBZ vs. VPA, p = 0.02; CBZ vs. LTG, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 50% of newly diagnosed patients became seizure-free on the first-ever AED, with >90% doing so at moderate or even modest dosing. Tolerability was as important as efficacy in determining overall effectiveness.  相似文献
4.
Clinical Trials of Investigational Antiepileptic Drugs: Monotherapy Designs   总被引:12,自引:12,他引:0  
The standard designs for safety and efficacy trials of investigational antiepileptic drugs are placebo-controlled, add-on trials and active control equivalence studies. These designs, motivated by medical ethics, have serious evidential limitations. Add-on trials are frequently criticized as insensitive and difficult to interpret in the presence of drug interactions; active control equivalence studies are not probative of test drug activity. As an alternative, we describe two trial designs: a placebo-control design with inpatients who in undergoing a presurgery seizure evaluation have had all antiepileptic drugs discontinued; and an active-control design aimed at showing the test drug superior to the control treatment, thus avoiding the interpretational difficulties of no-difference outcomes. A critical feature of these new designs is the limitation of subject exposure to unacceptable treatments. This is accomplished through protocol criteria--corresponding to therapeutic failure--which both terminate a subject's trial participation and form the basis of efficacy comparisons.  相似文献
5.
Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs   总被引:12,自引:12,他引:3  
Orrin Devinsky 《Epilepsia》1995,36(S2):S46-S65
Summary: All antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential for adverse effects on cognition and behavior. Most of the major AEDs, administered in therapeutic doses, cause little or no cognitive or behavioral impairment in group studies. However, individual variability is considerable, and some patients do not tolerate low serum levels, whereas others tolerate high levels without subjective or objective effects. In the past, carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA) have been reported to have the fewest adverse cognitive and behavioral effects in children and adults. However, several recent, well-controlled studies have not found significant differences between the effects of phenytoin (PHT) and those of CBZ or VPA. Greater adverse effects have been found for phenobarbi-tal (PB). However, we must use environmentally relevant measures of cognitive and behavioral functioning to measure effects on daily functioning. Future studies must define cognitive and behavioral toxicity in subpopulations (e.g., post-traumatic epilepsy, mental retardation, depression) and with the new AEds.  相似文献
6.
自发性小脑出血的外科治疗选择   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
目的探讨自发性小脑出血的外科治疗方式。方法回顾性分析我院采用不同手术方式治疗的31例自发性小脑出血患者的临床资料。结果采用后颅窝开颅血肿清除及去骨瓣减压术治疗19例,其中恢复良好12例,重残4例,植物生存1例,死亡2例:采用CT.引导立体定向血肿穿刺引流术治疗7例,其中恢复良好5例,重残1例,死亡1例;采用单纯脑室外引流治疗5例,其中恢复良好4例,重残1例。结论对自发性小脑出血患者,要根据发病时间、病因、病情轻重、头颅CT表现,选择不同的手术方式;及时手术治疗可以取得良好的治疗效果。  相似文献
7.
Behavioral Side Effects of Gabapentin in Children   总被引:9,自引:9,他引:4  
Summary: We report 7 children who received gabapentin (GBP) as adjunctive medication and subsequently developed behavioral side effects. These behavioral changes consisted of intensification of baseline behaviors as well as new behavioral problems. Behaviors that parents considered most troublesome were tantrums, aggression directed toward others, hyperactivity, and defiance. All behavioral changes were reversible and were managed by dose reduction or discontinuation of GBP. All children had baseline attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental delays.  相似文献
8.
Summary: In the course of an open study on the add-on treatment of tiagabine (TGB) in patients with localization-related epilepsy syndromes, 2 of 9 patients developed nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with electroclinical features consistent with those of atypical absence seizures. One patient had never had atypical absence seizures before. In both cases, immediate discontinuation of TGB was followed by complete and sustained electroclinical remission; we suggest a possible causative role of TGB. This observation may be consistent with a paradoxical effect of TGB in selected cases. Possible risk factors and a pathophysiological hypothesis are discussed.  相似文献
9.
181例原发性三叉神经痛微血管减压术疗效分析   总被引:8,自引:7,他引:1  
目的 探讨微血管减压术在原发性三叉神经痛疗中的效果,为指导诊疗提供临床依据.方法 对广东省人民医院神经外科自2000年1月至2007年12月收治的181例原发性三叉神经痛患者的一般资料、责任血管和外科手术效果等临床资料进行总结分析.结果 181例三叉神经痛患者中,O型血患者79例(占43.65%),较国人正常O型血分布(33.80%)有增高趋势;发病率右侧:左侧=1.8:1;2条以上责任血管者45例(24.86%);责任血管包括小脑上动脉96例,小脑后下动脉7例,小脑前下动脉以及动静脉混合接触或压迫者各25例.内听动脉13例,基底动脉15例,椎动脉9例,单纯静脉15例(主要为岩静脉和桥静脉),无名血管9例(主要为以上动静脉血管的分支).181例患者术后1月内171例症状完全消失(94.48%);症状改善,但需结合药物控制者9例(4.97%);植物生存1例(0.55%).结论 本组资料提示O型血可能更易患三叉神经痛;微血管减压术是原发性三叉神经痛的理想治疗手段,防止遗漏多发性责任血管是减少术后复发的重要因素.  相似文献
10.
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