首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   3326篇
  国内免费   27篇
  完全免费   590篇
  神经病学   3943篇
  2019年   73篇
  2018年   304篇
  2017年   270篇
  2016年   205篇
  2015年   141篇
  2014年   199篇
  2013年   178篇
  2012年   184篇
  2011年   197篇
  2010年   160篇
  2009年   268篇
  2008年   277篇
  2007年   241篇
  2006年   112篇
  2005年   84篇
  2004年   96篇
  2003年   80篇
  2002年   85篇
  2001年   57篇
  2000年   9篇
  1999年   52篇
  1998年   43篇
  1997年   45篇
  1996年   64篇
  1995年   49篇
  1994年   47篇
  1993年   46篇
  1992年   48篇
  1991年   40篇
  1990年   33篇
  1989年   25篇
  1988年   33篇
  1987年   31篇
  1986年   26篇
  1985年   37篇
  1984年   17篇
  1983年   18篇
  1982年   16篇
  1981年   15篇
  1980年   12篇
  1979年   4篇
  1978年   6篇
  1977年   5篇
  1976年   2篇
  1973年   2篇
  1972年   4篇
  1970年   1篇
  1969年   2篇
排序方式: 共有3943条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
This report presents the largest series of consecutive, neuropathologically confirmed cases of frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Prior studies have found dementia lacking distinctive histology (DLDH) to be the most common pathology underlying the clinical diagnosis of FTD. In this series of 76 cases, 29 (38%) were found to have frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease-type inclusions (FTLD-MND-type) or FTLD-MND (with ALS), the most common neuropathological classification in our series. Only eight (11%) were classified as Picks disease. Several cases originally designated as DLDH could be reclassified as FTLD-MND-type based on current recommendations for classification of FTD.  相似文献
2.
We have investigated the pathological correlates of dementia in the brains from a consecutive series of 70 patients dying with a clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Clinical misdiagnosis rate was low with only 3 patients (4%) failing to show pathological changes consistent with this diagnosis; 1 patient had Alzheimers disease and 2 had cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In the remaining 67 patients, the most common underlying histological cause was ubiquitin pathology with 24 (36%) cases so affected. In these, ubiquitin-positive inclusions were present in the cerebral cortex as small, rounded or crescent-shaped structures within the cytoplasm of neurones of layer II, together with coiled or curvilinear bodies within neurites, and in the hippocampus as small, solid and more spherical-shaped inclusion bodies within the cytoplasm of dentate gyrus granule cells. In one patient, cats eye or lentiform intranuclear ubiquitin inclusions were also present. The second most common histological type was dementia lacking distinctive histology (DLDH), in which neither tau nor ubiquitin inclusions were present, with 16 cases (24%) being affected. Pick-type histology was seen in 14 cases (21%) and tau histological changes associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) were present in 11 cases (16%). One case (1%) showed an unusual tau pathology that could not be allocated to any of the other tau groups. Only 1 case (1%) had neuronal intermediate filament inclusion dementia. No cases with ubiquitinated, valosin-containing protein-immunoreactive intranuclear inclusion bodies of the type seen in inclusion body myopathy with Pagets disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia were seen. Clinicopathological correlation showed that any of these histological subtypes can be associated with FTD. However, for FTD with motor neurone disease (FTD+MND), semantic dementia or primary progressive aphasia (PA), the histological profile was either ubiquitin type or DLDH type; Pick-type histology was seen in only 1 case of PA. None of these latter three clinical subtypes was associated with a mutation in tau gene and FTDP-17 type of tau pathology. All cases of progressive apraxia were associated with Pick-type histology. Present data therefore indicate that, although ubiquitin pathology is the most common histological form associated with FTLD, this pathology is not tightly linked with, nor is pathologically diagnostic for, any particular clinical form of the disease, including FTD+MND.The first two authors contributed equally  相似文献
3.
Co-morbidity of TDP-43 proteinopathy in Lewy body related diseases   总被引:15,自引:15,他引:0  
Here, we investigated if TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), the disease protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ubiquitin inclusions with or without motor neuron disease as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also formed inclusions in Lewy body (LB) disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD) without or with dementia (PDD), and dementia with LBs (DLB) alone or in association with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Immunohistochemical analyses of TDP-43 in clinically well characterized and pathologically confirmed cases of DLB + AD, PD and PDD demonstrated TDP-43 pathology in the following percentage of cases: DLB + AD = 25/80 (31.3%); PD = 5/69 (7.2%); PDD = 4/21 (19%), while DLB and normal controls exhibited no (0/10, 0%) and one cases (1/33, 3%) presenting TDP-43 pathology, respectively. Significant differences in the prevalence of TDP-43 lesions were noted between disease versus normal brains (P < 0.001) as well as demented versus non-demented brains (P < 0.001). Statistical analyses revealed a positive relationship between TDP-43 lesions and several clinical and pathological parameters in these disorders suggesting the TDP-43 pathology may have co-morbid effects in LB diseases. This study expands the concept of TDP-43 proteinopathies by implicating TDP-43 lesions in mechanisms of neurodegeneration in LB disorders. Hanae Nakashima-Yasuda and Kunihiro Uryu are equally contributed first authors.  相似文献
4.
目的 探索白细胞介素-6(IL-6)基因启动子区-174G/C多态性与阿尔茨海默病(AD)、血管性痴呆(VD)的关系.方法 采取病例对照研究方法 ,以广州地区流行病学调查中诊断的161例AD、54例VD患者和247名健康老年人为研究对象,用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性技术检测IL-6基因-174G/C多态性.结果 (1)所有研究对象均无C/C基因型.(2)AD组C等位基因频率(0.9%)及G/C基因型(1.9%)高于正常对照组(均为0),但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);按是否携带载脂蛋白E(Apo E)ε4进行分层,差异仍无统计学意义(P>0.05).(3)VD患者C等位基因(1.9%)频率及G/C基因型(3.7%)高于正常对照组(均为0),差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).(4)中、重度AD患者含ε4等位基因的频率(23.9%)高于对照组(14.7%,P<0.05).结论 IL-6基因-174G/C多态性不是广州地区汉族人群AD发病的危险因素,但与VD可能有关联.  相似文献
5.
The aim of this study was to improve the neuropathologic recognition and provide criteria for the pathological diagnosis in the neurodegenerative diseases grouped as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD); revised criteria are proposed. Recent advances in molecular genetics, biochemistry, and neuropathology of FTLD prompted the Midwest Consortium for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and experts at other centers to review and revise the existing neuropathologic diagnostic criteria for FTLD. The proposed criteria for FTLD are based on existing criteria, which include the tauopathies [FTLD with Pick bodies, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, sporadic multiple system tauopathy with dementia, argyrophilic grain disease, neurofibrillary tangle dementia, and FTD with microtubule-associated tau (MAPT) gene mutation, also called FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17)]. The proposed criteria take into account new disease entities and include the novel molecular pathology, TDP-43 proteinopathy, now recognized to be the most frequent histological finding in FTLD. TDP-43 is a major component of the pathologic inclusions of most sporadic and familial cases of FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U) with or without motor neuron disease (MND). Molecular genetic studies of familial cases of FTLD-U have shown that mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a major genetic cause of FTLD-U. Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene are present in rare familial forms of FTD, and some families with FTD and/or MND have been linked to chromosome 9p, and both are types of FTLD-U. Thus, familial TDP-43 proteinopathy is associated with defects in multiple genes, and molecular genetics is required in these cases to correctly identify the causative gene defect. In addition to genetic heterogeneity amongst the TDP-43 proteinopathies, there is also neuropathologic heterogeneity and there is a close relationship between genotype and FTLD-U subtype. In addition to these recent significant advances in the neuropathology of FTLD-U, novel FTLD entities have been further characterized, including neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. The proposed criteria incorporate up-to-date neuropathology of FTLD in the light of recent immunohistochemical, biochemical, and genetic advances. These criteria will be of value to the practicing neuropathologist and provide a foundation for clinical, clinico-pathologic, mechanistic studies and in vivo models of pathogenesis of FTLD.  相似文献
6.
曾被误诊的麻痹性痴呆23例分析   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
目的:研究麻痹性痴呆的诊断与治疗。方法:对曾被误诊的23例麻痹性痴呆,使用简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)及简易精神状态检查(MMSE)评定。并予驱梅毒及抗精神病药治疗。结果:驱梅毒治疗后可显著提高疗效。结论:麻痹性痴呆应及早正确诊断,作驱梅毒及抗精神病治疗。  相似文献
7.
金纳多对血管性痴呆大鼠认知功能及生长抑素表达的影响   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
目的研究金纳多对血管性痴呆(vascular dementia,VD)大鼠认知功能及生长抑素(SS)表达的影响。方法采用结扎双侧颈总动脉方法制备慢性前脑缺血动物模型。将100只老龄大鼠随机分为假手术组、模型组和金纳多组。应用水迷宫及免疫组化方法对各组大鼠学习记忆及SS表达进行观察。结果模型组与假手术组学习记忆能力差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与模型组比较,金纳多治疗30 d后大鼠学习记忆能力明显改善(P<0.05),SS阳性神经元表达增加(P<0.05)。结论金纳多可增加SS阳性神经元表达,改善VD大鼠学习记忆能力。  相似文献
8.
Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:56  
Summary Eighty-three brains obtained at autopsy from nondemented and demented individuals were examined for extracellular amyloid deposits and intraneuronal neurofibrillary changes. The distribution pattern and packing density of amyloid deposits turned out to be of limited significance for differentiation of neuropathological stages. Neurofibrillary changes occurred in the form of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. The distribution of neuritic plaques varied widely not only within architectonic units but also from one individual to another. Neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, in contrast, exhibited a characteristic distribution pattern permitting the differentiation of six stages. The first two stages were characterized by an either mild or severe alteration of the transentorhinal layer Pre- (transentorhinal stages I–II). The two forms of limbic stages (stages III–IV) were marked by a conspicuous affection of layer Pre- in both transentorhinal region and proper entorhinal cortex. In addition, there was mild involvement of the first Ammon's horn sector. The hallmark of the two isocortical stages (stages V–VI) was the destruction of virtually all isocortical association areas. The investigation showed that recognition of the six stages required qualitative evaluation of only a few key preparations.Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft  相似文献
9.
Histological and immunohistochemical findings in 20 cases of frontotemporal dementias – 8 cases of dementia of frontal lobe type (DFT), 7 cases of Pick’s disease (PD), and 5 cases of motor neuron disease with dementia (MND/D) – are presented. Common features of all three syndromes were: frontotemporal atrophy, involvement of subcortical nuclei, and swollen chromatolytic cells. Ubiquitin (Ub)-positive and tau-negative inclusions in cortical, hippocampal, and motor neurons were found in MND/D and DFT cases, suggesting a common pathogenesis of MND/D and DFT. MND/D showed the same cytoskeletal alterations in motor nuclei as MND without dementia: Bunina bodies and skein-like, Ub-positive inclusions. DFT differed from PD in the preponderance of histopathological changes in upper cortical layers, the sparseness of chromatolytic cells, and the absence of tau-positive Pick bodies (PBs). There were, however, two transitional cases showing Pick-type histology but no PBs, thus linking DFT and PD. PBs expressed chromogranin B and secretoneurin strongly, but chromogranin A only weakly. They were negative for the 70-kDa heat-shock protein, metallothionein, and glutathione-S-transferase. Received: 6 November 1995 / Revised: 12 January 1996 / Revised, accepted: 2 February 1996  相似文献
10.
To study the incidence and topographic distribution of -synuclein-positive inclusions in Parkinsons disease (PD), dementia with LB (DLB), and Alzheimers disease (AD), 206 brains of elderly patients, including 53 patients with clinical PD, 110 autopsy-proven AD cases, 22 with dementia with LB (DLB), 1 case with essential tremor, and 20 age-matched controls were investigated using -synuclein immunohistochemistry. For technical reasons, the olfactory system was not studied. In all PD brains, -synuclein-positive inclusions and neuronal losses were present in medullary and pontine nuclei, locus coeruleus, and substantia nigra, with additional lesions in amygdala (24%), allocortex (58%), cingulate area (34%), and isocortex (26.5%). All PD cases corresponded to pathology stage 4–6 suggested by Braak et al. (2003, Neurobiol Aging 24:197). In most cases of DLB, the distribution of -synuclein pathology and neurodegeneration corresponded to stages 5 and 6 of PD pathology. The case with essential tremor and 48.2% of the AD cases showed no LB pathology; in the other AD brains -synuclein-positive inclusions were seen in various brain areas. None of the controls showed LB pathology. Among 12 cases of incidental Lewy body disease (without clinical parkinsonian signs), 7 corresponded morphologically to PD stage 3 or 4. In further 6 AD cases, 2 with parkinsonian symptoms, considerable damage to locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, nucleus basalis and allocortex with preservation of the medullary nuclei was seen. The preliminary data largely confirm the Braak staging of brain pathology, although some of the clinical PD cases corresponded to stage 3 often considered as preclinical. In addition, some cases without demonstrable involvement of medullary nuclei showed extensive PD-like pathology in other brain areas, suggesting deviation from the proposed stereotypic expansion pattern and that incidental LB pathology may affect solely the locus coeruleus and substantia nigra. Striking similarity of LB pathology between DLB and PD suggests close morphological relationship between both disorders. Widespread LB lesions occurred in many sporadic AD cases without parkinsonian symptoms, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of which are unclear. The relationship between AD and PD with particular reference to synaptophysin-positive lesions needs further elucidation.An erratum to this article can be found at  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号