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1.
The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
McEwen BS 《Brain research》2000,886(1-2):172-189
The hormones and other physiological agents that mediate the effects of stress on the body have protective and adaptive effects in the short run and yet can accelerate pathophysiology when they are over-produced or mismanaged. Here we consider the protective and damaging effects of these mediators as they relate to the immune system and brain. 'Stress' is a principle focus, but this term is rather imprecise. Therefore, the article begins by noting two new terms, allostasis and allostatic load that are intended to supplement and clarify the meanings of 'stress' and 'homeostasis'. For the immune system, acute stress enhances immune function whereas chronic stress suppresses it. These effects can be beneficial for some types of immune responses and deleterious for others. A key mechanism involves the stress-hormone dependent translocation of immune cells in the blood to tissues and organs where an immune defense is needed. For the brain, acute stress enhances the memory of events that are potentially threatening to the organism. Chronic stress, on the other hand, causes adaptive plasticity in the brain, in which local neurotransmitters as well as systemic hormones interact to produce structural as well as functional changes, involving the suppression of ongoing neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and remodelling of dendrites in the Ammon's horn. Under extreme conditions only does permanent damage ensue. Adrenal steroids tell only part of the story as far as how the brain adapts, or shows damage, and local tissue modulators - cytokines for the immune response and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters for the hippocampus. Moreover, comparison of the effects of experimenter-applied stressors and psychosocial stressors show that what animals do to each other is often more potent than what experimenters do to them. And yet, even then, the brain is resilient and capable of adaptive plasticity. Stress-induced structural changes in brain regions such as the hippocampus have clinical ramifications for disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and individual differences in the aging process.  相似文献
2.
脑电非线性分析在认知功能研究中的应用   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
目的 探讨在不同认知作业状态下脑电非线性动力学特性的变化规律、脑电非线性动态分析在认知过程研究中的作用。方法 我们用关联维数 (D2 )、点关联维数 (PD2 )对 30名健康成年人四种状态下的脑电数据进行了分析 :安静闭眼、安静睁眼、闭眼心算作业和睁眼图形推理作业。结果 认知作业过程相对于安静状态 ,D2 和PD2 有明显的升高。闭眼和心算 ,睁眼和图形推理状态之间差异有显著意义 (D2 分别为 3 93和 4 33,P <0 0 1;4 4 7和 4 98,P <0 0 1)。D2 和PD2 随时间存在时高时低的现象。结论 动态的、短时程的非线性动力学分析方法 ,更适合研究认知过程中大脑功能活动的变化规律。以D2 和PD2 地形图为基础的动态分析 ,可以清晰地展示认知过程中D2 和PD2的分布情况及与认知作业相关的大脑部位活跃顺序和活跃程度的变化 ,有助于我们了解认知过程中大脑的工作机制。  相似文献
3.
Newer Antiepileptic Drugs and Cognitive Issues   总被引:22,自引:1,他引:21  
4.
Summary: Using a randomized parallel group study design, we compared the cognitive effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in children with epilepsy. Seventy-three children with newly diagnosed epilepsy were tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Bender-Gestalt test, and auditory event-related potentials (P300) before and 6 and 12 months after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. There were no significant differences in WISC-R IQs and Bender-Gestalt scores for children in any group at any of the three sessions. P300 latencies were increased in the children receiving PB but not in children receiving CBZ and VPA. P300 amplitudes were significantly reduced in treated children in all three groups, but amplitudes were not significantly different among the three groups. These findings suggest that PB may affect cognitive function of epileptic children and that the P300 may be a sensitive additional procedure that can be used to assess the cognitive effect of AEDs.  相似文献
5.
Anticonvulsant Drugs and Cognitive Functions   总被引:18,自引:15,他引:3  
6.
精神分裂症认知功能状况及影响因素   总被引:18,自引:9,他引:9  
目的 探讨精神分裂症认知功能的状况及影响因素。方法 对 36例精神分裂症患者在治疗前、治疗后 6周作神经心理测验和阴性及阳性症状量表 (PANSS)、临床总体印象量表 (CGI)、副反应量表 (TESS)、锥体外系副反应量表 (RSESE)的评定 ,并以 36名健康人进行对照。结果 精神分裂症患者与正常对照组比较 ,两组在知识、算术、数字符号、数字广度 (顺、逆 )、木块拼图、瞬时逻辑记忆、视觉再生即刻和延迟、STROOPC W正确数、词汇流畅、TOH总分 ,计划时间、延迟逻辑记忆、WCST所有指标有显著差异 (P <0 0 5 )。阳性症状量表减分率与视觉再生及WCST分类个数成绩的提高呈显著正相关。而阴性症状量表减分率与瞬时逻辑记忆成绩的提高呈显著正相关。安坦的剂量与木块拼图、瞬时逻辑记忆及WCST分类个数 3项成绩的提高呈显著负相关。安定的药量与算术、视觉再生、汉诺塔总分的改善呈显著负相关。结论 精神分裂症患者存在广泛的认知功能的损害 ,其认知功能可能受到阳性症状、阴性症状、安坦及安定药量的影响。  相似文献
7.
氯氮平和维思通对精神分裂症认知功能的影响   总被引:16,自引:4,他引:12  
目的:比较氯氮平和维思通对精神分裂症对知功能的影响,以阴性症状为主。方法对57例接受氯氮平或维思通治疗的精神分裂症病人,采用韦氏记忆量表,数字划销测验、威斯康星卡片分类测验评估其治疗前和治疗8周后记忆、注意及执行功能。结果氯氮平和维思通能显著改善记忆,注意及执行功能,氯氮平对以阳性症状为主分裂症的注意改善优于维思通,维思能对以阴性症状为主分裂症图片成绩优于氯氮平,结论两种药物均有助于改善精神分理解  相似文献
8.
PURPOSE: This study compares the cognitive effects of topiramate (TPM) with those of valproate (VPA) using efficacious doses of each drug when used as adjunctive therapy to carbamazepine (CBZ). A key question of the study is to what extent a more gradual introduction of TPM improves tolerability and prevents cognitive impairment. METHODS: The study is a multicenter, randomized, observer-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial with VPA or TPM given as first-line add-on therapy to steady-state treatment with CBZ. TPM is introduced at 25 mg and increased with weekly 25mg/d increments to a minimum dosage of 200 mg/d. The target dosage ranges from 200 to 400 mg/d for TPM and is 1800 mg/d for VPA. The study evaluates cognitive function changes from baseline to end point (after 20 weeks of treatment) and during titration (after 8 weeks of treatment). The primary outcome measure is the difference between the treatments (TPM versus VPA) in change from baseline to end point and change from baseline to titration, using a 95% confidence interval approach. RESULTS: For the 10 baseline-to-end point comparisons, one test measuring short-term verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) yields a statistically significant difference between the treatments (p = 0.02), showing worsening for TPM and improvement of scores for VPA. The 10 baseline-to-titration comparisons also show one statistically significant difference, again for a test measuring short-term memory (Recognition of Words; p = 0.04), showing a larger change in the negative direction for TPM. None of the mood tests or the test for subjective complaints shows statistically significant differences between the treatments, although more scores are in the negative direction for TPM during titration. CONCLUSION: Although the pattern of changes in the negative direction seems consistent with clinical information, the differences found between the treatments are small. An important finding of our study is that, when the results are compared with those of other studies, it is clear that gradual introduction of TPM can reduce the extent of cognitive impairment (with a maximum of about 0.6 SD).  相似文献
9.
精神分裂症症状与认知功能损害的关系   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:13  
目的:探讨精神分裂症症状与认知功能损害的关系。方法:对18例阴性精神分裂症和15例阳性精神分裂症采用氯氮平治疗;对11例阴性精神分裂症和13例阳性精神分裂症采用利培酮治疗。并分别评估其治疗前和治疗8周后的阳性症状,阳性症状记忆,注意及执行功能。结果:精神分裂症的记忆损害与阴性症状和阳性症状都呈显著性相关,注意及执行功能损害与阴性症状显著相关,与阳性症状无明显相关;记忆随思维贫乏的改善而改善,注意和执行功能损害的改善与症状的改善无明显相关。结论:精神分裂症认知功能损害主要与阴性症状相关,但精神分裂症的大部分认知功能并不随阴性症状改善而改善。  相似文献
10.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often produces cognitive impairments by primary or secondary neuronal loss. Stem cells are a potential tool to treat TBI. However, most previous studies using rodent stem or progenitor cells failed to correlate cell grafting and cognitive improvement. Furthermore, the efficacy of fetal human neural stem cells (hNSCs) for ameliorating TBI cognitive dysfunction is undetermined. This study therefore characterized phenotypic differentiation, neurotrophic factor expression and release and functional outcome of grafting hNSCs into TBI rat brains. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a moderate parasagittal fluid percussion TBI followed by ipsilateral hippocampal transplantation of hNSCs or vehicle 1 day post-injury. Prior to grafting, hNSCs were treated in vitro for 7 days with our previously developed priming procedure. Significant spatial learning and memory improvements were detected by the Morris water maze (MWM) test in rats 10 days after receiving hNSC grafts. Morphological analyses revealed that hNSCs survived and differentiated mainly into neurons in the injured hippocampus at 2 weeks after grafting. Furthermore, hNSCs expressed and released glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro and when grafted in vivo, as detected by RT-PCR, immunostaining, microdialysis and ELISA. This is the first direct demonstration of the release of a neurotrophic factor in conjunction with stem cell grafting. In conclusion, human fetal neural stem cell grafts improved cognitive function of rats with acute TBI. Grafted cells survived and differentiated into neurons and expressed and released GNDF in vivo, which may help protect host cells from secondary damage and aid host regeneration.  相似文献
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