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1.
M. R. Trimble 《Epilepsia》1990,31(S4):S30-S34
Summary: The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognitive function and behavior in children are reviewed on the basis of published studies. Individual AEDs have been shown to differ–the deleterious effects of phenytoin generally contrasting with the relatively minimal effects of valproate and carbamazepine. Some of the differences between results may be attributed to the psychological tests used and to age differences. However, there appears to be a dissociation between AEDs that affect higher cognitive function, e.g., phenytoin, and those mainly affecting motor function, e.g., carbamazepine, which appears to increase speed of performance. AEDs should be prescribed with care in children with epilepsy, taking account of their differing effects on cognitive function and behavior.  相似文献
2.
Learning Disabilities in Epilepsy: Neurophysiological Aspects   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:3  
Summary: Subclinical generalized spike-wave discharges are often accompanied by transitory cognitive impairment, demonstrable by psychological testing during EEG recording. Transitory cognitive impairment is demonstrated most readily by difficult tasks and during generalized regular spike-wave bursts lasting for more than 3 s, but can also be found during briefer and even focal discharges. That this is not simply a consequence of global inattention is shown by the fact that focal discharges exhibit some specificity: left-sided focal spiking is more likely to produce errors on verbal tasks, for instance, whereas right-sided discharges are more often accompanied by impairment in handling nonverbal material. Both learning difficulties in general and specific abnormal patterns of cognitive functioning are well documented in children with epilepsy and are most pronounced in those with frequent interictal discharges. However, there is now evidence that intermittent cognitive impairment due to the discharges themselves contributes significantly to such neurophysiological abnormalities. The significance of transitory cognitive impairment accompanying subclinical EEG discharges for everyday functioning is uncertain, but there is experimental evidence that subclinical discharges may be accompanied by disruption of educational skills in children or by impairment of driving performance in motorists. In some individuals, suppression of discharges by antiepileptic drugs has demonstrably improved psychological function, but further work is required to determine the indications for such treatment  相似文献
3.
Summary: The value of a range of computer-aided tests in the neuropsychological assessment was investigated in 94–177 children with epilepsy, aged 8–18 years, compared with 68–161 controls in the same age group. Children from the age of 8 years could cope with rather complex tests in a wide range of functions: reaction time measurements, motor speed, information processing, and memory. The speed of performance tended to increase with age in both groups, with differences in information processing becoming apparent from the age of 12 years. The precise control of stimulus and response required to define the mainly minor differences between the epilepsy and control groups can only be fulfilled by computerized testing, which should undergo further refinement including voice and language recognition, followed by artificial intelligence.  相似文献
4.
M. Dam 《Epilepsia》1990,31(S4):S26-S29
Summary: Overall, children with epilepsy have poorer concentration and mental processing and are less alert than age-matched controls. The relationship between cognitive functioning and epilepsy is complex, however, with widely differing degrees of intellectual impairment–ranging from minimal to severe and progressive–related to diverse types of epileptic seizures, syndromes, and etiological factors. Prolonged and frequently repeated seizures are typically associated with more severe effects on cognitive functioning, particularly if epilepsy is symptomatic, i.e., secondary to a demonstrable brain lesion. A combination of such factors may contribute to the mental deterioration seen in many children suffering from severe epilepsy.  相似文献
5.
轻度血管性认知障碍的筛查量表   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
目的 制定适合轻度血管性认知障碍(mVCI)的简短认知筛查量表.方法 选取mVCI患者80例,其中皮质下小血管病导致的mVCI(mVCI-SSVD)56例,多发性梗死或关键部位梗死导致的mVCI(mVCI-MI/SI)24例;另选健康志愿者80例.对所有受试者进行执行功能和信息处理速度相关检测,应用logistic回归分析筛选出对mVCI及其亚型有较好识别能力的项目,组成筛查量表,并探讨其敏感度和特异度.结果 mVCI及其亚型的执行功能和信息处理速度均有损害.筛查量表对区别3组患者(mVCI、mVCISSVD及mVCI-M J/SI组)和正常对照有很好的敏感度(80.0%~85.7%)和特异度(88.8%~96.3%),而且对认知损害极轻的mVCI患者和mvCI-SSVD患者仍有很好的判别能力.结论 执行功能和信息处理速度相关测验组成的筛查量表对mVCI及其亚型有较高的识别能力,需加大样本量进行证实.  相似文献
6.
A.-L. Rugland 《Epilepsia》1990,31(S4):S41-S44
Summary: The variety of cognitive dysfunctions related to learning disabilities in children with epilepsy have been studied by linking electroencephalogram (EEG) and computerized neuropsychological testing. This showed that "subclinical" discharges impaired performance in 61% of the patients on a simple and a choice reaction time test, although some discharges lasted 1 s only. Neuropsychological investigation of subclinical EEG discharges may help to determine their adverse effect on learning.  相似文献
7.
Summary: Cognitive function is frequently impaired in children with epilepsy, compared with age-matched controls. It can be hard to evaluate the significance of various contributory factors. The effects of antiepileptic drugs may be studied in children who have outgrown their epilepsy but are still being treated. A multicenter study to assess various aspects of cognitive function in children with different forms of epilepsy, both during and after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, is currently under way. Definitive results are not yet available; interim analysis of the findings suggests that short-term memory is decreased in all subgroups of children being treated for epilepsy, compared to controls.  相似文献
8.
Epilepsy, Learning, and Behavior in Childhood   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:4  
Summary: Several major issues exist with regard to epilepsy and learning in childhood. A small subgroup of children have a decreasing I.Q. In addition, a high proportion of children with epilepsy, possibly one half, have some schooling difficulties. Learning problems may be a consequence of the epilepsy or a result of associated factors. It is important to distinguish between the slowing of acquisition of skills and actual loss of skills; the practical implications for the child and family are very different in these two situations. In the very small proportion of children in whom actual loss of skills occurs, it is essential to seek a cause, because a cause can usually be identified and may require specific management. The importance of distinguishing between state-dependent, potentially reversible intellectual impairment and permanent impairment cannot be overemphasized. State-dependent intellectual impairment, e.g., arising from ongoing nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) or antiepileptic drug (AED) toxicity, must be identified and every effort made to eliminate it. Studies at St Piers Lingfield have shed light on these issues although the answers to many of the questions remain incomplete. Educational difficulty is among the factors that may affect behavior. However, there are many other causes for behavioral disturbance in the child with epilepsy. A specific framework for assessing the child with epilepsy and behavioral disturbance allows the cause or causes of the behavioral disturbance to be identified and managed in a rational way.  相似文献
9.
帕金森病患者轻度认知功能损害   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1  
目的 探讨帕金森病(PD)患者伴轻度认知功能损害(MCI)即PD-MCI的特征及其相关因素.方法 采用多种量表[MMSE、Hoehn-Yahr分期、Webster评分、PD统一评分量表-运动(UPDRS-motor)及剑桥老年认知检查量表中文版(CAMCOG-C)]评估PD患者的病情严重程度、运动和认知功能;应用Petersen改良标准诊断PD-MCI.结果 89例PD患者中,认知正常(PDCOGNL)56例(63%),PD-MCI 20例(22%),PD痴呆(PDD)13例(15%).PD-MCI组较PDCOGNL组在定向、语言、记忆、注意、执行、思维、知觉等方面均存在明显损害,两组年龄和起病年龄差异无统计学意义,受教育程度差异有统计学意义(PD-MCI:4.4±4.3,PDCOGNL:7.1±4.9;q=3.270,P<0.05);PD-MCI组的年龄、起病年龄及受教育程度较PDD组差异均无统计学意义;而PDD组较PDCOGNL组在年龄、起病年龄、受教育程度等方面差异均有统计学意义(q=-4.913、-4.997、4.740,均P<0.01);3组间病程差异无统计学意义.Hoehn-Yahr分期、Webster评分及UPDRS-motor评分与PD认知功能均存在负相关.结论 PD-MCI是PD认知正常与PDD之间的过渡状态,存在多个区域的认知损害;高龄、起病年龄迟、受教育程度低可能是PD认知损害的危险因素;疾病严重程度及运动功能与PD认知功能存在着负相关.  相似文献
10.
脑血管狭窄或闭塞对认知功能的影响:病例对照研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
目的 通过对脑血管狭窄或闭寒患者的认知功能进行评价,探讨认知障碍的相关危险因素.方法 对经颈动脉超声和脑血管造影检查证实的脑血管狭窄或闭塞患者进行简易智能状念检查量表(MMSE)、记忆力(包括听觉记忆力和视觉记忆力)、执行能力、信息处理速度、视空间能力、结构能力、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)以及汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)榆古,全面评价其认知功能.结果 经校正性别、年龄、受教育程度、高血压、糖尿病、腔隙性脑梗死、收缩压,血糖和吸烟因素后,狭窄组患者MMSE评分、记忆力、执行能力、信息处理速度、视空间能力及结构能力方面的测试成绩均低于对照组(P<0.05),而视觉记忆力中的再认、HAMA评分和HAMD评分,组间差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).狄窄组中的腔隙性脑梗死患者,MMSE评分、听觉记忆力、执行能力中的控制能力、思维灵活性以及结构能力方面的测试成绩均低于非腔隙性脑梗死患者(P<0.05);单支血管狭窄患者简化Rey-Osterrieth复杂图形长时延迟同忆以及书氏成人智力量表修订版中的图片排列测验和数字符号测验成绩均优于多支血管狭窄患者(P<0.05)结论 脑血管狭窄或闭塞患者存在认知障碍,且不能用血管性危险因素或腔隙性脑梗死来解释腔隙性脑梗死患者和多支血管狭窄患者认知功能损害严重.认知障碍与脑血管狭窄或闭塞导致的慢性脑组织供血不足密切相关.  相似文献
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