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1.
Long-Term Prognosis in Childhood Epilepsy: Survival and Seizure Prognosis   总被引:23,自引:23,他引:10  
L. O. Brorson  L. Wranne 《Epilepsia》1987,28(4):324-330
All children aged 0-19 years who had active epilepsy in a defined Swedish population were traced and given a clinical and psychometric investigation. Twelve years later, a follow-up study was carried out. Eleven of the 194 children had died, 8 of whom had had signs of neurodeficit, i.e., abnormal neurology and/or mental retardation. A long-standing remission of seizures occurred in 124 of the 194 children. Signs of neurodeficit, frequent seizures, and many types of seizures were negative prognostic factors. The presence of all these factors carried a bad prognosis, seizures persisting during 12 years in greater than 80%. For those who were mentally and neurologically normal and had low seizure frequency, prognosis was excellent, only 11% still having active epilepsy after 12 years. A study of the annual remission rate showed that each year approximately 13% of the children without neurodeficit had remission from epilepsy the next year. This rate appeared to be stable over the 12 years studied. Among those children with neurodeficit, the annual remission rate was high only during the first years after onset, later falling to 3% a year.  相似文献
2.
Prevalence of the Epilepsies in Children and Adolescents   总被引:19,自引:19,他引:6  
The prevalence of epilepsy in children and adolescents from birth through age 19 years was determined for residents of two counties in central Oklahoma. Cases, identified from hospitals, clinics, private physicians' offices, and EEG laboratory and emergency room records, numbered 1,159, yielding a prevalence rate of 4.71 per 1,000. The prevalence was highest in children aged 1-4 years. Overall, males had a slightly higher prevalence rate than females (M:F = 1.1). However, the male/female ratio varied by age, with the group aged less than 1 year having the highest ratio (M:F = 1.5), and by type of epilepsy, with males having higher rates of simple partial epilepsy (M:F = 1.8) and infantile spasms (M:F = 1.5). The prevalence of epilepsy was higher in blacks than in whites. Differences in prevalence by race were confined primarily to generalized epilepsies (B:W = 1.8). The most common types of epilepsy were tonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic (1.14 per 1,000), complex partial (0.39 per 1,000), and partial seizures secondarily generalized (0.33 per 1,000). Approximately 70% of cases were considered idiopathic. Among the presumed causes were perinatal factors (7%), trauma (4%), central nervous system (CNS) infection (3%), and congenital/developmental factors (3). Sixty-five percent of cases had at least one additional medical problem. The most common types of comorbidity were motor handicap (13%) and developmental delay (24%).  相似文献
3.
Partial Epilepsies in Infancy: A Study of 40 Cases   总被引:14,自引:14,他引:0  
Forty patients with partial epilepsy that began before they were aged 3 years were recorded at the Centre Saint-Paul between 1981 and 1986 with a follow-up ranging from 1 year 9 months to 20 years. We analyzed the following data: age at onset, clinical features of seizures at onset and during the follow-up period, ictal and interictal EEG features, etiologic circumstances, evolution of the epilepsy, and psychomotor development. The age of onset was mostly between 2 months and 2 years (more than two thirds of cases). Most had partial symptomatic epilepsy. In nine cases, epilepsy was preceded by febrile convulsions. Seizures at onset were of the following type (in order of decreasing occurrence): unilateral seizures, complex partial seizures, elementary partial seizures, and other seizures, often difficult to classify. A few patients with infantile spasms associated with focal or multifocal EEG abnormalities, differing from West's syndrome, were included in this study. We discuss the problem arising from the classification of infantile seizures and epilepsies.  相似文献
4.
Ictal Clinical Electroencephalographic Findings of Spasms in West Syndrome   总被引:14,自引:14,他引:6  
Summary: The electroencephalographic/video recordings of 955 spasms in children with cryptogenic and symptomatic West syndrome (WS) were reviewed to define the relation between a clinical manifestation of a spasm and its EEG pattern, and to examine whether these features reflect the etiology and prognosis of WS. The review confirmed the spasm to be a distinct type of seizure, with a unique clinical and EEG pattern unlike that of all other recognized seizures. Symmetric spasms were present in cryptogenic and symptomatic patients. In contrast, asymmetric spasms, or focal signs recognizable during a spasm, strongly indicated the existence of a cerebral lesion. In both etiological groups, the characteristic ictal EEG pattern of the spasms consisted of a positive-vertex slow wave. The other two patterns apparently correlated to a spasm, were fast activity, here called spindle-like, and decremental activity. The fast activity corresponded to a clinical stare, and the decremental activity, when present, represented a postictal event. Although it was independent from the etiology of the spasms, persisting hypsarrhythmia during a cluster of spasms appeared to be an EEG pattern that correlated with a favorable outcome.  相似文献
5.
6.
Temporal Lobectomy in Early Childhood   总被引:11,自引:11,他引:7  
Children with medically resistant temporal lobe seizures that persist into adolescence often experience psychosocial deterioration and medical morbidity. It is therefore especially important to evaluate the contribution of surgical therapy in preadolescent children. We describe our experience with temporal lobectomy in 16 children less than 12 years (mean age 7 years) who had intractable seizures of temporal lobe origin. Structural lesions were identified on neuroimaging studies in 11 patients. In all patients, the standard anterior temporal lobectomy was tailored according to the extent of the lesion and epileptogenic field. At follow-up, 11 children were seizure-free, three were 90% improved, one was 50% improved, and one was unchanged. Neuropathological abnormalities were identified in virtually all children. Prenatally acquired abnormalities of neurogenesis were the most common, whereas mesial temporal sclerosis was found in only two children. We conclude that tailored temporal lobectomy in the first decade of life is highly beneficial in carefully selected children with medically refractory seizures.  相似文献
7.
Community-Based Study of Mortality in Children with Epilepsy   总被引:11,自引:11,他引:4  
Summary: Summary: We used the records of a statewide pediatric mortality surveillance system to determine mortality rates and causes of death in children with epilepsy. Of the 1,095 children aged 1–14 years who died in the state of Victoria during the study period 1985–1989,93 had a history of epilepsy. Six children (6%) had primary epilepsy, and 87 (94%) had secondary epilepsy. Death was (a) directly attributable to epilepsy in 20 (22%), including 11 with sudden unexplained death, (b) not directly attributable to epilepsy in 59 (63%), and (c) of undetermined cause in 14 (15%). No classifiable death occurred as a direct result of status epilepticus. The average annual mortality rates for children with epilepsy were (a) death from all causes, 30.6 in 10,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.7, 47.51, and (b) death attributable to epilepsy, 6.6 in 10,000 (95% CI 3.7, 11.8). Relative to the all-cause mortality rate in children without epilepsy, the all-cause mortality rate ratios were (a) all children with epilepsy, 13.2 (95% CI 8.5, 20.7); (b) primary epilepsy, 1.1 (95% CI 0.5, 2.6); and (c) secondary epilepsy, 49.7 (95% CI 31.7, 77.9). The mortality rate ratios for secondary epilepsy relative to primary epilepsy were (a) death from all causes, 43.5 (95% CI 19.0, 99.5); and (b) death attributable to epilepsy, 9.0 (95% CI 3.3, 24.8). Epilepsy appeared on the death certificate of only 11 of 20 (55%) children whose deaths were attributable to epilepsy. We conclude that (a) there was an increased risk of death during childhood in children with epilepsy; (b) the risk of death was greatest for children with secondary epilepsy; (c) potentially preventable, epilepsy-related deaths occurred in children with primary epilepsy; (d) sudden unexplained death accounted for at least 12% of deaths; and (e) death certification was deficient with respect to recording of epilepsy.  相似文献
8.
Summary: Tumors and cortical dysplasia are associated with epilepsy, but few studies have examined the coexistence of neoplasia and dysplasia in these patients. We studied 13 patients (age 4–29 years) with recurrent seizures of 1 month to 21-year' duration (median 72 months). Ten patients were aged <21 years. Imaging studies localized the lesion to the temporal lobe (10 patients), parietal lobe (2 patients), and frontal lobe (1 patient). Tumors included ganglioglioma (8 patients), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) (3 patients), and low-grade as- trocytoma (2 patients). Cortical dysplasia, including atypical aggregates of neurons (6 patients), multifocal loss of the cortical laminar architecture (7 patients), and neurons in the molecular layer of the cortex (3 patients) were observed near but separate from the tumor. Coexistence of certain tumors with cortical dysplasia, most frequently observed in the pediatric population, suggests a hamar-tomatous/dysplastic nature of the neoplasms.  相似文献
9.
Surgical Treatment for Epilepsy in Cerebral Tuberous Sclerosis   总被引:10,自引:10,他引:4  
Summary: Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant hamartiosis and hamartomatosis with variable expression that is commonly associated with medically intractable seizures. Patients with TS complex (TSC) frequently have multiple brain lesions that can give rise to seizure activity. We report 9 patients with TSC who underwent epilepsy surgery at the Mayo Clinic between 1986 and 1990. Surgical procedures performed included cortical resection (n = 2) and stereotaxic lesionectomy (n = 7). Neuropathologic diagnoses were cortical tubers (n = 7) and glioneural hamartomas (n = 2). Three of 9 patients had multifocal interictal scalp epileptiform EEG activity; however, ictal recordings identified the focus of seizure activity, which in all cases corresponded to a prominent neuroimaging abnormality. Our patients have been followed for 10–72 months (mean 35 months). Four patients are seizure-free with medication, 2 are seizurefree without medication, 2 had >80% reduction in seizure frequency, and 1 experienced only an initial temporary reduction in seizure frequency. Postoperative EEG recordings showed absence of epileptiform abnormalities in the 5 patients who are seizure-free; the other 4 patients continue to have multifocal abnormalities. These data suggest that epilepsy surgery may be beneficial in selected patients with TSC despite multifocal EEG and neuroimaging abnormalities.  相似文献
10.
The Idiopathic Form of West Syndrome   总被引:10,自引:10,他引:5  
Summary: The clinical and electroencephalographic data of 31 children with cryptogenic West syndrome (WS), selected from a series of 103 WS patients, with a follow-up between 4 and 12 years, were studied retrospectively to verify whether this group included patients who fulfilled the criteria for an idiopathic etiology. The results identified a possible idiopathic etiology in 17 patients (55%), who had a family history of other forms of idiopathic epilepsy or febrile convulsions, or who developed, during the follow-up, an EEG genetic trait such as a photoconvulsive response or spike-and-wave discharges, or rolandic spikes. All 17 children had a favorable outcome and all had normal neuropsychological development. Four children (13%) fulfilled the criteria for a true cryptogenic etiology, a causative lesion being suspected, but never proved. At the end of the follow-up all four had seizures, or developmental delay or both, all signs that suggest an underlying cerebral lesion. The other 10 children, representing 32% of the cryptogenic cases, had a good prognosis, with early disappearance of spasms and hypsarrhythmia, and normal neurological development, but none had an EEG epileptic trait or family history of epilepsy or febrile convulsions; although they could have had an idiopathic WS, this was not proved. We conclude that among the children classified as having a cryptogenic WS, many—in our series at least 55%—fulfill the criteria for an idiopathic etiology.  相似文献
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