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Amygdala, hippocampus and six cortical gyri were examined for the Lewy body (LB) degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) type changes in 45 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). For detection of LBs, the brain areas were stained with an antibody against alpha-synuclein. The extent of neuropathological lesions was investigated in relation to cognitive dysfunction and apolipoprotein E (apoE) ɛ4 allele dosage. At least one cortical LB was found in 95% of cases (43/45). Furthermore, 40% of cases (18/45) had histological findings of definite AD (CERAD class C). Those PD cases with the apoE ɛ4 allele had a significantly greater number of cortical LBs than those without the apoE ɛ4 allele, but this was statistically significant only in precentral, angular and temporal gyri. The LB density correlated better with the number of plaques than with the density of tangles. The number of LBs in several cortical areas correlated significantly with the cognitive impairment. In stepwise linear regression analysis, the number of LBs in the cingulate gyrus and the amount of tangles in the temporal cortex remained statistically significant. When the CERAD class C was excluded, the correlation between cognitive decline and the number of LBs in cortical areas became even more pronounced. A stepwise linear regression analysis in these cases found the number of LBs in the frontal gyrus to be the statistically most significant predictor of cognitive impairment. This study shows, for the first time, that in PD, alpha-synuclein-positive cortical LBs are associated with cognitive impairment independent of AD-type pathology. Received: 20 August 1999 / Revised, accepted: 4 November 1999  相似文献
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BACKGROUND: Alpha synuclein has been found elevated in dopamine neurons of cocaine abusers and in rats whose alcohol preference is inbred. METHODS: The alpha synuclein mRNA expression level was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the blood of 75 male alcoholics and 69 nondrinking healthy control subjects. Alcohol craving was assessed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale total score, including subscales for obsessive and compulsive craving. RESULTS: The alpha synuclein expression in patients with alcoholism (2.79 DeltaCT; SD = 1.69; p = .021) was significantly higher when compared with healthy control subjects (2.20 DeltaCT; SD = 1.59). Increased alpha synuclein levels significantly predict Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale total score (odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.06, p = .042) and especially Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale obsessive subscale (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-2.58, p = .005) but not Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale compulsive subscale alcohol craving. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of alpha synuclein are associated with an increase in alcohol craving. The present results provide a novel pathophysiological approach to the explanation of craving mechanisms.  相似文献
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. alpha-Synuclein is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of PD because aggregated alpha-synuclein accumulates in the brains of subjects with PD, mutations in alpha-synuclein cause familial PD, and overexpressing mutant human alpha-synuclein (A30P or A53T) causes degenerative disease in mice or drosophila. The pathophysiology of PD is poorly understood, but increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To understand how mutations in alpha-synuclein contribute to the pathophysiology of PD, we undertook a proteomic analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing A30P alpha-synuclein to investigate which proteins are oxidized. We observed more than twofold selective increases in specific carbonyl levels of three metabolic proteins in brains of symptomatic A30P alpha-synuclein mice: carbonic anhydrase 2 (Car2), alpha-enolase (Eno1), and lactate dehydrogenase 2 (Ldh2). Analysis of the activities of these proteins demonstrates decreased functions of these oxidatively modified proteins in brains from the A30P compared to control mice. Our findings suggest that proteins associated with impaired energy metabolism and mitochondria are particularly prone to oxidative stress associated with A30P-mutant alpha-synuclein.  相似文献
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Alpha-synuclein(alpha-S) and ubiquitin(Ub) are constituents of the Lewy bodies (LBs), composed of fibrillary structures. To clarify morphological heterogeneity of LBs, we looked for localization of these epitopes in relation to fibrillary structure possibly detectable by a fluorochrome, thiazin red (TR). On the sections of the substantia nigra (SN) and the cingulate gyrus (CG) obtained from Parkinson's disease brains, double amplification by CARD fluorescent immunohistochemistry with anti-alpha-S monoclonal (LB509) and anti-Ub polyclonal antibodies was performed, followed by staining with TR. These triple-labeled images were captured by a confocal laser microscope and subsequently stained with Campbell-Switzer method, a silver staining specific for LBs. Staining profiles of LBs were different between those in the SN and in the CG. Immunolabeling either with the anti-alpha-S or anti-Ub antibody was diffuse without halo structure in LBs of CG. In addition to this diffuse staining, a lot of LBs of SN exhibited a halo structure immunopositive for alpha-S and Ub, probably representing later stages of LB evolution. Irrespective of the presence of this halo structure, the TR signal was always concentrated in the center of LBs, as the silver-stained material was, suggesting that fibrillary components in the central portion of LBs undergo some conformational changes detectable by TR and the silver-staining. This technique reveals different epitopes in relation to LB evolution in vivo. Heterogeneity in staining profile of LBs, as clarified by this method, may represent evolutional changes of LBs, related to conformational states of their constituents.  相似文献
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Phosphorylated and proteolytically cleaved TDP-43 is a major component of the ubiquitin-positive inclusions in the most common pathological subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Intracellular accumulation of TDP-43 is observed in a subpopulation of patients with other dementia disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, the pathological significance of TDP-43 pathology in these disorders is unknown, since biochemical features of the TDP-43 accumulated in AD and DLB brains, especially its phosphorylation sites and pattern of fragmentation, are still unclear. To address these issues, we performed immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses of AD and DLB cases, using phosphorylation-dependent anti-TDP-43 antibodies. We found a higher frequency of pathological TDP-43 in AD (36–56%) and in DLB (53–60%) than previously reported. Of the TDP-43-positive cases, about 20–30% showed neocortical TDP-43 pathology resembling the FTLD-U subtype associated with progranulin gene (PGRN) mutations. Immunoblot analyses of the sarkosyl-insoluble fraction from cases with neocortical TDP-43 pathology showed intense staining of several low-molecular-weight bands, corresponding to C-terminal fragments of TDP-43. Interestingly, the band pattern of these C-terminal fragments in AD and DLB also corresponds to that previously observed in the FTLD-U subtype associated with PGRN mutations. These results suggest that the morphological and biochemical features of TDP-43 pathology are common between AD or DLB and a specific subtype of FTLD-U. There may be genetic factors, such as mutations or genetic variants of PGRN underlying the co-occurrence of abnormal deposition of TDP-43, tau and α-synuclein.  相似文献
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Classical Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the appearance of Lewy bodies (LBs) in affected brain regions, showing mostly compact alpha-synuclein deposition, in contrast with punctate or granular deposition, hypothesized to represent early stages of aggregation. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the commonest mutated gene in inherited and idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutation carriers display a diverse neuropathology, including alpha-synuclein and tau inclusions, suggesting an upstream role for LRRK2 in protein aggregation. We studied LRRK2 expression throughout the normal human brain with three different antibodies. We also examined the pattern of LRRK2 expression in relation to alpha-synuclein aggregation and LB formation in the brainstem of sporadic LB disease. Physiological LRRK2 expression was not restricted to regions preferentially affected in PD and LRRK2 often localized to the nuclear envelope in addition to the known cytoplasmic expression. In PD, we were able to consistently detect LRRK2 in the halo of a minority (approximately 10%) of nigral LBs using three different antibodies. Only one antibody detected LRRK2 in the core of approximately 80% of classic LBs. In the lower brainstem, most notably in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, we found previously unrecognized LRRK2 labelling of complex globular lesions, filled with LB-like matter showing a punctate or granular staining for alpha-synuclein. This was often accompanied by strong LRRK2 expression within dystrophic neurites. Our findings confirm widespread physiological LRRK2 expression in the human brain and suggest an association of LRRK2 with possible early-stage alpha-synuclein pathology in the brainstem of PD.  相似文献
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To investigate the relation between the loss of substantia nigra (SN) neurons in normal ageing and Parkinson’s disease (PD), we measured the total number and the cell body volume of pigmented (neuromelanin) neurons in the SN. We examined young (n = 7, mean age: 19.9), middle-aged (n = 9, mean age: 50.1), and older controls from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 7, mean age: 87.6), as well as PD cases (n = 8, mean age: 74.8). On random-systematically selected paraffin Nissl-stained sections, we used the Optical Fractionator to estimate the total number of neurons on one side of the SN. Using the Nucleator probe, we measured the volume of these neurons. In young and older controls, we also estimated the total number and volume of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive (+) nigral neurons. We observed a significant loss of pigmented (-28.3%, P < 0.01) and TH (+) (−36.2%, P < 0.001) neurons in older controls compared with younger subjects. Analysis of the size distribution of pigmented and TH (+) neurons showed a significant hypertrophy in older controls compared to young controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, in PD we observed a significant atrophy of pigmented neurons compared to all control groups (P < 0.01). These data suggest that neuronal hypertrophy represents a compensatory mechanism within individual SN neurons that allows for normal motor function despite the loss of neurons in normal ageing. Presumably, this compensatory mechanism breaks down or is overwhelmed by the pathological events of PD leading to the onset of the characteristic motor disturbances.  相似文献
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