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1.
Approximately three-quarters of epileptic patients seen in consultation by specialists can easily be assigned to one of the diagnostic categories of the International League against Epilepsy. When patient age is taken into account, such a distribution shows that partial epilepsy is more common than generalized epilepsy (62% versus 38%) in patients of all ages, especially in those over 15 years of age (78% versus 22%). In contrast, generalized epilepsy is more frequent in subjects under 15 than partial epilepsy (55% versus 45%). In this younger age group the rarity of partial epilepsy is primarily due to the infrequency of temporal lobe epilepsy (21% of cases, as opposed to 56% in subjects over 15), whereas both primary and secondary generalized epilepsy contribute to the frequency of generalized epilepsy in this group.  相似文献
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An epidemiologic study of epilepsy in school age children has been carried out in Modena, Italy, during the period 1968 to 1973. The prevalence of epileptics aged 5 to 14 years varied between 3.98% and 4.91%. The accession rate varied between 60 and 98 cases /100,000. The primary generalized epilepsies represent 30.8%, the epilepsies with rolandic spike foci 23.9%, the other types of partial epilepsy 42.1%, and the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 3.2%. Of the 178 epileptics diagnosed during school age, 159 have been followed for at least 4 years, with recovery in 55% of the cases and tendency to improve in 24%.  相似文献
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Behavioral Effects of Kainic Acid Administration on the Immature Brain   总被引:11,自引:11,他引:3  
Prepubescent male rats with an amygdaloid electrode in place were administered kainic acid (KA) intraperitoneally (i.p.) while controls received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All KA-treated animals developed status epilepticus with bilateral forelimb clonus and ictal discharges on the EEG. The rats were then tested as adults for learning, memory, emotionality, social interaction, and activity level using the T maze, water maze, handling test, home cage intruder test, and open field test. KA-treated rats learned at a slower rate in the water maze and T maze than the controls. In addition, KA-treated rats had evidence of impaired memory during spatial bias testing in the water maze. In the home cage intruder test, KA-treated animals were more submissive and less aggressive than control animals. Finally, KA-treated animals were significantly more active than control animals in the open field test. This study demonstrates that KA administration to the immature brain, in a convulsant dose, results in permanent changes in behavior, learning, and memory.  相似文献
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Using quantitative receptor autoradiography, we assessed binding site densities and distribution patterns of glutamate, GABA(A), acetylcholine (ACh), and monoamine receptors in the hippocampus of 32-month-old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats. Prior to autoradiography, the rats were divided into two groups according to their retention performance in a water maze reference memory task, which was assessed 1 week after 8 days of daily maze training. The animals of the inferior group showed less long-term retention of the hidden-platform task but did not differ from superior rats in their navigation performance during place training and cued trials. The decreased retention performance in the group of inferior learners was primarily accompanied by increased alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in all hippocampal subregions under inspection (CA1-CA4 and dentate gyrus), while elevated alpha(2)-adrenoceptor binding was observed in the CA1 region and DG. Furthermore, inferior learners had higher NMDA binding in the CA2 and CA4 and increased 5-HT(1A) binding sites in the CA2, CA3, and CA4 region. No significant differences between inferior and superior learners were evident with regard to AMPA, kainate, GABA(A), muscarinergic M(1), dopamine D(1), and 5-HT(2) binding densities in any hippocampal region analyzed. These results show that increased NMDA, 5-HT(1A), and alpha-adrenoceptor binding in the hippocampus is associated with a decline in spatial memory. The increased receptor binding observed in the group of old rats with inferior maze performance might be the result of neural adaptation triggered by age-related changes in synaptic connectivity and/or synaptic activity.  相似文献
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综合认知训练对社区健康老人认知功能的影响   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
目的 探索综合认知训练对社区健康老人认知功能的影响.方法 对上海市某街道社区老人(年龄≥70岁),按照每50人一组进行筛查,共筛查347名.151名老人符合入组标准,按类随机方式分为认知训练干预组(90名)和非认知训练组(对照组,61名).对干预组进行12周(共24次)的综合认知训练.干预前后采用中国老年成套神经心理测验(NTBE)、Stroop字色干扰测验中文版及自制健康问卷对两组进行测评.结果 (1)干预前:干预组NTBE中听觉词汇学习1重复数、无关插入数及语义联系3项评分高于对照组(P<0.05~0.01),其他测验两组间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)干预后组内比较:干预组NTBE18项、Stroop字色干扰测验6项自身有提高(P≤0.05~0.01).对照组NTBE 9项提高,1项下降;Stroop字色干扰测验1项自身有提高,2项下降(P≤0.05~0.01).(3)干预后组间比较:干预组NTBE 4项、Stroop字色干扰测验2项优于对照组(P≤0.05~0.01).结论 综合认知训练对社区健康老人执行功能、推理能力等认知功能有提高作用.  相似文献
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Cajal was probably the first neurobiologist to suggest that plasticity of nerve cells almost completely disappeared during aging. However, we know today that neural plasticity is still present in the brain during aging. In this review we suggest that aging is a physiological process that occurs asynchronously in different areas of the brain and that the rate of that process is modulated by environmental factors and related to the neuronal-synaptic-molecular substrates of each area. We review here some of the most recent results on aging of the brain in relation to the plastic changes that occur in young and aged animals as a result of living in an enriched environment. We highlight the results from our own laboratory on the dynamics of neurotransmitters in different areas of the brain. Specifically we review first the effects of aging on neurons, dendrites, synapses, and also on molecular and functional plasticity. Second, the effects of environmental enrichment on the brain of young and aged animals. And third the effects of an enriched environment on the age-related changes in neurogenesis and in the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and GABA in hippocampus, and on dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate and GABA under a situation of acute mild stress in the prefrontal cortex.  相似文献
9.
112例老年人急性重型颅脑损伤的特征与救治分析   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6  
目的 总结老年人重型颅脑损伤的临床特征与救治经验。方法 对我院1993年12月至2004年12月收治的112例老年重型颅脑损伤患者进行回顾性分析。结果 存活41例。死亡71例(死亡率63.4%)。35例获随访3个月~9年,17例恢复良好,轻残7例。中残6例,重残5例。结论 老年重型颅脑损伤患者全身并发症多,死亡率高,预后相对较差。早期诊断与积极的综合治疗措施是救治老年重型颅脑损伤患者的重要方法。  相似文献
10.
Psychopathology in Epilepsy: Relationship of Seizure Type to Age at Onset   总被引:7,自引:7,他引:1  
Study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and generalized epilepsy revealed no overall seizure type differences, nor overall age-at-onset effects, on MMPI measures of psychopathology. However, statistically significant interactions between seizure type and age at onset were obtained on several MMPI measures, and subsequent analyses revealed that patients with adolescent-onset temporal lobe epilepsy are at higher risk of developing psychological dysfunctions.  相似文献
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