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1.
Prevalence of the Epilepsies in Children and Adolescents   总被引:19,自引:19,他引:6  
The prevalence of epilepsy in children and adolescents from birth through age 19 years was determined for residents of two counties in central Oklahoma. Cases, identified from hospitals, clinics, private physicians' offices, and EEG laboratory and emergency room records, numbered 1,159, yielding a prevalence rate of 4.71 per 1,000. The prevalence was highest in children aged 1-4 years. Overall, males had a slightly higher prevalence rate than females (M:F = 1.1). However, the male/female ratio varied by age, with the group aged less than 1 year having the highest ratio (M:F = 1.5), and by type of epilepsy, with males having higher rates of simple partial epilepsy (M:F = 1.8) and infantile spasms (M:F = 1.5). The prevalence of epilepsy was higher in blacks than in whites. Differences in prevalence by race were confined primarily to generalized epilepsies (B:W = 1.8). The most common types of epilepsy were tonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic (1.14 per 1,000), complex partial (0.39 per 1,000), and partial seizures secondarily generalized (0.33 per 1,000). Approximately 70% of cases were considered idiopathic. Among the presumed causes were perinatal factors (7%), trauma (4%), central nervous system (CNS) infection (3%), and congenital/developmental factors (3). Sixty-five percent of cases had at least one additional medical problem. The most common types of comorbidity were motor handicap (13%) and developmental delay (24%).  相似文献
2.
Summary: Purpose: We compared quality of life (QOL) in youth with inactive or active epilepsy with that of a similar sample of youth with asthma. We explored 19 different dimensions in three domains (psychological, social, and school) and also determined differences related to illness severity and gender.
Methods: Subjects were 228 adolescents (117 with epilepsy and 111 with asthma). Data were collected from clinic records and from the adolescents, their mothers, and their teachers through questionnaires and structured interviews. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance.
Results: The analysis with all 19 QOL variables indicated a significant difference between the total asthma and the total epilepsy samples (multivariate F = 3.36, p = 0.0001). Further evaluation reflected differences between the epilepsy group and the asthma group on 13 of the 19 QOL variables. When active and inactive epilepsy and asthma groups were compared, youth with active epilepsy were faring worse than all other groups in 10 areas. Moreover, youth with inactive epilepsy were faring worse than those with inactive asthma in four areas. Illness severity and sex differences were more strongly related to QOL in the epilepsy sample than in the asthma sample. Sex-severity interactions suggested that girls with high seizure severity were most at risk for QOL problems.
Conclusions: Youth with active epilepsy generally had the poorest QOL. Severe seizures and female sex were associated with more problems. Sex-severity interactions should be explored in future research.  相似文献
3.
Neuroimaging in Pediatric Epilepsy   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:4  
Ruben I. Kuzniecky 《Epilepsia》1996,37(S1):S10-S21
Summary: Neuroimaging techniques have advanced the diagnosis, management, and understanding of the patho-physiology underlying the epilepsies. High-resolution ultrasound is an important and useful technique in the investigation of prematures and neonates with seizures. Computed tomography (CT) scans have a diminishing role in the investigation of patients with epilepsy, but in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT may detect gross structural pathology. MRI is the technique of choice for investigation of patients with seizure disorders. MRI provides excellent anatomic information and tissue. Contrast, resulting in high sensitivity. MRI studies should be customized to answer the appropriate clinical question. Functional imaging techniques including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI are becoming increasingly important in the investigation and management of patients with seizures. These techniques permit noninvasive assessment of the epileptic substrate, functional status, ictal activity, blood flow changes, metabolism, and neuroreceptors. Application of these new techniques promises to advance our understanding and treatment of seizures in children.  相似文献
4.
Wendy G. Mitchell 《Epilepsia》1996,37(S1):S74-S80
Summary: Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies in children, adolescents, and young adults. SE may be due to acute neurologic conditions such as meningitis, encephalitis, or stroke, complicated febrile seizures, intractable epilepsy, degenerative diseases, intoxication, or may be the first manifestation of epilepsy. Initial treatment of convulsive SE is usually with an intravenous benzodiazepine (BZD) [lorazepam (LZP) or diazepam (DZP)], phenobarbital (PB), or phe-nytoin (PHT). LZP is less likely to cause respiratory depression than DZP and is therefore preferred. Sequelae and risk for recurrence of SE are primarily related to the underlying cause. Refractory SE (RSE) is most often symptomatic of an acute neurologic condition or neuro-degenerative disease. Treatment for RSE is difficult, usually requiring intensive support of vital functions. Reported treatments for RSE include very high dose PB, continuous infusions of pentobarbital or BZDs (DZP, mi-dazolam), lidocaine, inhalation anesthesia, and propofol. Outcome is related to underlying cause. Nonconvulsive SE may present as confusion or may mimic psychiatric illness. Response to BZDs is usually rapid but may not be sustained. Rapid initiation of oral or rectal valproate may be useful. Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is almost always due to an acute or chronic destructive lesion. Surgical treatment may be the only effective modality in some children with EPC. Acute treatment of breakthrough seizures and clusters of seizures at home with rectal BZDs (usually DZP, 0.2–0.5 mg/kg) may prevent progression to SE in some children and adolescents and reduce the need for visits to emergency facilities.  相似文献
5.
Psychosocial problems in adolescents with epilepsy have been of concern for many years, but have been difficult to assess. This article presents the multicenter development of the Adolescent Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (APSI), an empirically based self-report test patterned after the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory, which is used to evaluate psychosocial problems in adults. After pilot work, 120 adolescents with epilepsy from five centers in North America took the APSI and were interviewed by professionals with respect to adequacy of adjustment in eight psychosocial areas. At least one parent or guardian was also interviewed. Interrater reliability of professional ratings in each area was established. Using an item-by-item, empirically based technique, eight psychosocial scales were developed as well as three validity scales. Reliability of the scales was established by both internal consistency and test-retest procedures. Results for each adolescent are presented in profile form. These results give a visual display of the types and extent of problems that likely would be identified in a detailed professional assessment. It is anticipated that the APSI will be of value in a variety of treatment and research contexts.  相似文献
6.
Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:3  
Summary: Status epilepticus (SE) occurs most commonly in infancy and childhood. Children with prior neurological abnormalities are most susceptible. More than 90% of cases are convulsive and the majority are generalized. SE may occur in the setting of an acute illness, in patients with established epilepsy or as a first unprovoked seizure. The etiology can be classified as idiopathic, remote symptomatic, febrile, acute symptomatic, or associated with a progressive encephalopathy. The morbidity and mortality of status have dramatically declined in recent years. Overall mortality in recent pediatric series was 3–10%, with almost all fatalities associated with acute central nervous system insults or progressive neurologic disorders. Neurological sequelae in children with idiopathic or febrile status are rare. Neurologically normal children with SE as their first unprovoked seizure have the same risk of experiencing subsequent seizures of any type as children who present with a brief first seizure. The risk of recurrent episodes of convulsive SE approaches 50% in neurologically abnormal children but is very low in neurologically normal children. The favorable outcome of SE in children may be related to advances in therapy and to the resistance of the immature brain to damage from seizures.  相似文献
7.
Summary: Despite the continued development and release of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), many children have seizures that do not respond to conventional therapy or have related side effects that preclude continued use. While some of these children are surgical candidates, the majority do not qualify for surgical resection. In these children alternative therapies are often considered by desperate physicians and parents. Three of the less conventional therapies which are currently used for intractable epilepsy are: the ketogenic diet, immunoglobulins, and steroids. None of these therapies has been adequately studied and it remains unclear which patients may benefit or be harmed by these therapies. Despite the lack of scientific vigor in evaluating these therapies, the television and print media has proclaimed these therapies as miraculous, yet grossly under-utilized by an ignorant medical community. The ketogenic diet has been demonstrated to reduce seizure frequency in some patients, but has an unclear mechanism of action, while immunoglob-ulins have both unknown efficacy and an unknown mechanism of action. While steroids are accepted as an effective therapy for infantile spasms, their role in the treatment of the Landau-Kleffner syndrome is far less clear. Although the ketogenic diet, immunoglobulins, and steroids may have a role in the treatment of severe childhood epilepsy, all three therapies need to be critically evaluated in regard to efficacy, mechanism of action, and safety.  相似文献
8.
9.
Epilepsy in Adolescence: Implications for the Development of Personality   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:1  
Sixteen adolescent children with onset of epilepsy between the ages of 1 and 12 years and 16 control children were investigated by interview, self-esteem scales, and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Children with epilepsy had a significantly larger discrepancy between the self-image and the ideal self-image than did the control children. TAT indicated the body and self-image is poorer, the unknown and the risk of acting out more threatening, the sex identity less stable, and the defense not as adaptive as the control group. Persons suffering from epilepsy are often stigmatized. One explanation could be the influence of epilepsy on the development during adolescence of the basic trust of their bodies and of themselves.  相似文献
10.
Social Adjustment in Young Adults with Absence Epilepsies   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:3  
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