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1.
Prevalence of the Epilepsies in Children and Adolescents   总被引:25,自引:19,他引:6  
The prevalence of epilepsy in children and adolescents from birth through age 19 years was determined for residents of two counties in central Oklahoma. Cases, identified from hospitals, clinics, private physicians' offices, and EEG laboratory and emergency room records, numbered 1,159, yielding a prevalence rate of 4.71 per 1,000. The prevalence was highest in children aged 1-4 years. Overall, males had a slightly higher prevalence rate than females (M:F = 1.1). However, the male/female ratio varied by age, with the group aged less than 1 year having the highest ratio (M:F = 1.5), and by type of epilepsy, with males having higher rates of simple partial epilepsy (M:F = 1.8) and infantile spasms (M:F = 1.5). The prevalence of epilepsy was higher in blacks than in whites. Differences in prevalence by race were confined primarily to generalized epilepsies (B:W = 1.8). The most common types of epilepsy were tonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic (1.14 per 1,000), complex partial (0.39 per 1,000), and partial seizures secondarily generalized (0.33 per 1,000). Approximately 70% of cases were considered idiopathic. Among the presumed causes were perinatal factors (7%), trauma (4%), central nervous system (CNS) infection (3%), and congenital/developmental factors (3). Sixty-five percent of cases had at least one additional medical problem. The most common types of comorbidity were motor handicap (13%) and developmental delay (24%).  相似文献
2.
Summary: Purpose: We compared quality of life (QOL) in youth with inactive or active epilepsy with that of a similar sample of youth with asthma. We explored 19 different dimensions in three domains (psychological, social, and school) and also determined differences related to illness severity and gender.
Methods: Subjects were 228 adolescents (117 with epilepsy and 111 with asthma). Data were collected from clinic records and from the adolescents, their mothers, and their teachers through questionnaires and structured interviews. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance.
Results: The analysis with all 19 QOL variables indicated a significant difference between the total asthma and the total epilepsy samples (multivariate F = 3.36, p = 0.0001). Further evaluation reflected differences between the epilepsy group and the asthma group on 13 of the 19 QOL variables. When active and inactive epilepsy and asthma groups were compared, youth with active epilepsy were faring worse than all other groups in 10 areas. Moreover, youth with inactive epilepsy were faring worse than those with inactive asthma in four areas. Illness severity and sex differences were more strongly related to QOL in the epilepsy sample than in the asthma sample. Sex-severity interactions suggested that girls with high seizure severity were most at risk for QOL problems.
Conclusions: Youth with active epilepsy generally had the poorest QOL. Severe seizures and female sex were associated with more problems. Sex-severity interactions should be explored in future research.  相似文献
3.
PURPOSE: We report the development of an instrument to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with epilepsy. METHODS: A sample of 197 English-speaking adolescents (aged 11-17 years) with epilepsy completed a test questionnaire of 88 items. Also included were mastery and self-esteem scales to assess external validity. A parent simultaneously completed an 11-item questionnaire to evaluate the child's HRQOL. Both adolescent and parent questionnaires were repeated in 2-4 weeks. Demographic information and information pertaining to seizures were collected at baseline along with assessment of systemic and neurologic toxicity. RESULTS: The QOLIE-AD-48 contains 48 items in eight subscales: epilepsy impact (12 items), memory/concentration (10), attitudes toward epilepsy (four), physical functioning (five), stigma (six), social support (four), school behavior (four), health perceptions (three), and a total summary score, with higher scores indicating better HRQOL. Internal construct validity was demonstrated in a single-factor solution for the eight dimensions. All correlations were statistically significant at p < 0.05 level. Internal consistency reliability estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.74 for the summary score and ranged from a low of 0.52 (three-item Health Perceptions Scale) to 0.73-0.94 for the other individual scales. Good test-retest reliability was found for the overall measure (0.83). Summary score correlations with the two external validity scales, self-efficacy and self-esteem were 0.65 and 0.54, respectively. Statistically significant differences in summary scores indicating that HRQOL was increasingly better for adolescents as seizure severity decreases (no seizures = 77+/-13, low = 70+/-17, high = 63+/-17) were found among seizure-severity groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data describe the development of a robust instrument to evaluate HRQOL in adolescents with epilepsy. Empiric analyses provide strong evidence that the QOLIE-AD-48 is both a reliable and valid measure for adolescents with epilepsy.  相似文献
4.
The purpose of this study is to explore the direction of the association between insomnia and anxiety disorders and major depression among a community-based sample of adolescents to better understand their potential etiologic relationships. Data come from a community-based sample of 1014 youth aged 13–16. Structured interviews were conducted to assess DSM-IV diagnoses. Retrospectively reported ages of onset were used in Proportional Hazards models to estimate increased risk of one disorder associated with prior onset of the others. The lifetime associations of DSM-IV insomnia with each anxiety disorder and with depression were moderate (OR = 3.2–6.8). Among those with comorbid disorders, anxiety disorders preceded insomnia 73% of the time, while insomnia occurred first in 69% of comorbid insomnia and depression cases. Any prior anxiety disorder was associated with an increased risk of insomnia adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and depression prior to insomnia (HR = 3.5). However, prior insomnia was not significantly associated with onset of anxiety disorders. Prior depression was not associated with onset of insomnia, but prior insomnia was associated with onset of depression adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and any prior anxiety disorder (HR = 3.8). These results suggest distinct natural courses of development between DSM-IV insomnia, anxiety, and depression during adolescence. Additionally insomnia may have independent, and potentially etiologically distinct, directional associations with anxiety disorders versus depression.  相似文献
5.
OBJECTIVE: To compare weight-related concerns and behaviors across ethnicity/race among a population-based sample of adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: The study population included 4746 adolescents from urban public schools in the state of Minnesota who completed surveys and anthropometric measurements as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study focusing on eating patterns and weight concerns among teenagers. Main outcome measures included measured body mass index (BMI), weight-related concerns (perceived weight status, weight disparity, body satisfaction and attitudes about weight control) and weight-related behaviors (general/specific weight control behaviors and binge eating). RESULTS: In comparison to White girls, African American girls tended to report fewer weight-related concerns/behaviors, while Hispanic, Asian American and Native American girls tended to report similar or more concerns/behaviors. Among boys, weight-related concerns/behaviors were equally or more prevalent among all non-Whites than among Whites. In particular, African American and Asian American boys were at greater risk for potentially harmful weight-related concerns/behaviors than White boys. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-related concerns and behaviors are prevalent among adolescents, regardless of their ethnic/racial background, indicating a need for prevention and treatment efforts that reach adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds. However, ethnic differences demonstrate a need for ensuring that the specific needs of different groups are addressed in the development of such interventions.  相似文献
6.
我国20个地区农村青年女性与男性自杀死亡者特征的比较   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
目的探讨农村青年女性和男性自杀死亡特征,为预防自杀提供依据。方法以在全国20个疾病监测点中抽取的农村地区、年龄在15-34岁的295个自杀死亡案例为研究对象,其中女性169例,男性.126例,应用自制的意外死亡调查问卷进行调查。结果(1)两组自杀死亡者在年龄、受教育年限和自杀未遂史等方面的差异无显著性意义(均P>0.05);(2)与男性相比,女性自杀死亡者的家庭人均月收入高[(200±237)元:(148±170)元,经秩和检验,P<0.05]、生命质量好[(54±13)分:(50±12)分,P<0.01]、现婚率高(80.5%:51.6%,P<0.001)、夫妻不和或吵架者多(52.1%:38.9%,P<0.05)、服毒自杀者多(86.4%:76.2%,P<0.05)、患躯体疾病(13.3%:24.6%,P<0.05)和精神疾病(44.3%:70.6%,P<0.001)者少;(3)与女性组相比,男性自杀死亡者的主要特点是经济困难者多(54.0%:34.6%,P=0.001)、酒精滥用者多(18.3%:1.8%,P<0.001)、自杀后被发现的时间晚[(196±620)min:(55±95)min,P<0.001]、自杀者被发现时已死亡的比例高(52.4%:28.4%,P=0.001)。结论 农村青年女性与男性自杀死亡特征存在明显不同,应采取不同的干预措施。夫妻矛盾可能是农村青年女性比男性更为重要的自杀危险因素,而男性的经济困难、酒精滥用则比女性突出。  相似文献
7.
15~24岁人群自杀特征及危险因素的病例对照研究   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
目的了解全国15~24岁自杀死亡者的特征,并通过与其他伤害死亡案例的比较了解青年自杀的危险因素。方法由精神科医师运用心理解剖方法对全国有地理代表性的23个疾病监测点上报的15~24岁的88例自杀案例(自杀组)和76例其他伤害死亡案例(对照组)的家属和周围知情人进行深入调查。结果(1)自杀组的平均受教育年限为(6.2±3.2)年,59%为女性,88%居住在乡村,82%服毒或服药自杀,26%为现婚,76%自杀前一直在工作或学习,26%有自杀未遂既往史,14%有血缘关系的人曾有自杀行为,31%朋友或熟人有过自杀行为,50%自杀当时有精神疾病,18%曾因心理问题寻求过帮助。(2)有既往自杀未遂史(经单因素分析)、自杀前2周有抑郁症状、自杀当时急性应激强度大和自杀前1个月生命质量低(后3项经多因素logistic回归分析)是自杀的危险因素。结论15~24岁自杀死亡者中50%有精神疾病,仅极少数自杀死亡者曾因心理问题寻求帮助。自杀未遂既往史、近2周有抑郁症状、经历急性负性生活事件和近1个月生命质量低为青年自杀死亡的主要危险因素。  相似文献
8.
This study reports on self-reported depressive symptoms, assessed with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), in a school sample of 685 Italian students. The participants were 254 males and 431 females, the age range of the subjects was 8 to 17 years (mean age 13.0 ± 2.8 years). The CDI mean score was 10.49 ± 2.76. According to our data, about 10% of the subjects scored higher than the clinical threshold of 20. More than 1/3 of the students reported thoughts of death, but only 2.2% had explicit suicidal ideation. Girls scored higher than boys, and young adolescents (11–13 years) scored lower than pre-pubertal children and older adolescents, and showed fewer thoughts of death. Factorial analysis yielded seven factors, a general factor with no predominant theme, two factors related to academic self-image and body image, and four related to anhedonia-withdrawal, hypocondria-asthenia, irritability-opposition, and loss of appetite.  相似文献
9.
Wendy G. Mitchell 《Epilepsia》1996,37(S1):S74-S80
Summary: Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies in children, adolescents, and young adults. SE may be due to acute neurologic conditions such as meningitis, encephalitis, or stroke, complicated febrile seizures, intractable epilepsy, degenerative diseases, intoxication, or may be the first manifestation of epilepsy. Initial treatment of convulsive SE is usually with an intravenous benzodiazepine (BZD) [lorazepam (LZP) or diazepam (DZP)], phenobarbital (PB), or phe-nytoin (PHT). LZP is less likely to cause respiratory depression than DZP and is therefore preferred. Sequelae and risk for recurrence of SE are primarily related to the underlying cause. Refractory SE (RSE) is most often symptomatic of an acute neurologic condition or neuro-degenerative disease. Treatment for RSE is difficult, usually requiring intensive support of vital functions. Reported treatments for RSE include very high dose PB, continuous infusions of pentobarbital or BZDs (DZP, mi-dazolam), lidocaine, inhalation anesthesia, and propofol. Outcome is related to underlying cause. Nonconvulsive SE may present as confusion or may mimic psychiatric illness. Response to BZDs is usually rapid but may not be sustained. Rapid initiation of oral or rectal valproate may be useful. Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is almost always due to an acute or chronic destructive lesion. Surgical treatment may be the only effective modality in some children with EPC. Acute treatment of breakthrough seizures and clusters of seizures at home with rectal BZDs (usually DZP, 0.2–0.5 mg/kg) may prevent progression to SE in some children and adolescents and reduce the need for visits to emergency facilities.  相似文献
10.
BACKGROUND: In adult animals and humans, nicotine can produce short-term cognitive enhancement and, in some cases, neuroprotection. Recent work in animals, however, suggests that exposure to nicotine during adolescence might be neurotoxic. We tested for evidence of acute and chronic effects of tobacco smoking on cognition in adolescents who smoked tobacco daily and were compared with adolescent nonsmokers. METHODS: Verbal working memory, verbal learning and memory, selective, divided, sustained attention, mood, symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and tobacco craving were examined in 41 adolescent daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers who were similar in age, gender, and education. Analyses were controlled for general intelligence, reading achievement, parental educational attainment, baseline affective symptoms, and lifetime exposure to alcohol and cannabis. RESULTS: In adolescent smokers, cessation of tobacco use increased tobacco craving, symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and depressed mood. Adolescent smokers were found to have impairments in accuracy of working memory performance irrespective of recency of smoking. Performance decrements were more severe with earlier age of onset of smoking. Adolescent smokers experienced further disruption of working memory and verbal memory during smoking cessation. As a group, male smokers initiated smoking at an earlier age than female smokers and were significantly more impaired during tests of selective and divided attention than female smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent daily tobacco smokers experience acute impairments of verbal memory and working memory after smoking cessation, along with chronic decrements in cognitive performance that are consistent with preclinical evidence that neurotoxic effects of nicotine are more severe when exposure to nicotine occurs at earlier periods in development.  相似文献
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