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1.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical for successful treatment. However, the differential diagnosis between HCC and benign hepatic lesions is sometimes difficult and new biochemical markers for HCC are required. It has been reported that glypican-3 (GPC3) messenger RNA (mRNA) is significantly increased in most HCCs compared with benign liver lesions or normal liver. The goal of this study is to determine whether GPC3 is also overexpressed at the protein level and whether GPC3 is detectable in the serum of patients with HCC. METHODS: GPC3 was assessed in liver tissue sections by immunohistochemistry and in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was also measured in the same patients. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical studies showed that GPC3 is expressed in 72% of HCCs (21 of 29), whereas it is not detectable in hepatocytes from normal liver and benign liver diseases. Consistent with this, GPC3 was undetectable in the serum of healthy donors and patients with hepatitis, but its levels were significantly increased in 18 of 34 patients (53%) with HCC. In addition, only 1 of 20 patients with hepatitis plus liver cirrhosis displayed elevated levels of serum GPC3. Interestingly, in most cases, there was no correlation between GPC3 and AFP values. Thus, at least 1 of the 2 markers was elevated in 82% of the patients with HCC. CONCLUSIONS: GPC3 is specifically overexpressed in most HCCs and is elevated in the serum of a large proportion of patients with HCC. The simultaneous determination of GPC3 and AFP may significantly increase the sensitivity for diagnosis of HCC.  相似文献
2.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have indicated that stem cells have unexpected plasticity and can differentiate down a multitude of nonhematopoietic cell lineages in rodents. Our aim was to identify whether human cord blood cells, which are a rich source of stem cells, would be able to differentiate into hepatocytes when infused into nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. We also wanted to test whether such differentiated cells were the result of cellular fusion or true stem cell transdifferentiation. METHODS: Unsorted mononuclear cell preparations of human cord blood were infused into sublethally irradiated NOD-SCID mice. After death, immunohistologic analysis of murine livers was performed using human specific hepatocyte, biliary, and endothelial markers. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mouse and human DNA was also performed. RESULTS: We show that human cord blood cells have the ability to engraft into NOD-SCID liver and become mature hepatocytes. We were unable to identify any biliary or endothelial differentiation. Furthermore, we do not detect any evidence of cell fusion in any of the human cells found in the mouse liver, suggesting that human cord blood cells are capable of true transdifferentiation into hepatocytes in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hepatocytes can derive from human cord blood cells when infused into NOD-SCID mice in the absence of fusion. The demonstration that human stem cell differentiation can occur in this murine model permits comprehensive study of human stem cell plasticity in vivo.  相似文献
3.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) regulates immune response and inflammation. We carried out a pilot placebo-controlled study to investigate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of MRA, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IL-6 receptor, in patients with active Crohn's disease. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with active Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI] > or =150) were randomly assigned to receive biweekly intravenous infusion of either placebo, MRA, or MRA/placebo alternately for 12 weeks at a dose of 8 mg/kg. The study's primary end point was a clinical response rate that was defined as a reduction of CDAI > or =70. RESULTS: At the final evaluation, 80% of the patients (8 of 10) given biweekly MRA had a clinical response as compared with 31% of the placebo-treated patients (4 of 13; P = 0.019). Twenty percent of the patients (2 of 10) on this regimen went into remission (CDAI <150), as compared with 0% of the placebo-treated patients (0 of 13). The clinical response rate of the every-4-week regimen was 42% (5 of 12). The serum concentrations of MRA were detected at 2 weeks after every infusion, at which time acute phase responses were completely suppressed; however, they were not suppressed at 4 weeks. Endoscopic and histologic examination showed no difference between MRA and placebo groups. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clinical trial of humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody in Crohn's disease. A biweekly 8 mg/kg infusion of MRA was well tolerated, normalized the acute-phase responses, and suggests a clinical effect in active Crohn's disease.  相似文献
4.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The REACH study evaluated the safety and efficacy of infliximab in children with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. METHODS: Patients (n = 112) with a Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) score >30 received infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Patients responding to treatment at week 10 were randomized to infliximab 5 mg/kg every 8 or 12 weeks through week 46. A concurrent immunomodulator was required. Clinical response (decrease from baseline in the PCDAI score > or =15 points; total score < or =30) and clinical remission (PCDAI score < or =10 points) were evaluated at weeks 10, 30, and 54. RESULTS: At week 10, 99 of 112 (88.4%) patients responded to infliximab (95% confidence interval: [82.5%, 94.3%]) and 66 of 112 (58.9%) patients achieved clinical remission (95% confidence interval: [49.8%, 68.0%]). At week 54, 33 of 52 (63.5%) and 29 of 52 (55.8%) patients receiving infliximab every 8 weeks did not require dose adjustment and were in clinical response and clinical remission, respectively, compared with 17 of 51 (33.3%) and 12 of 51 (23.5%) patients receiving treatment every 12 weeks (P = .002 and P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients responding to an induction regimen of infliximab were more likely to be in clinical response and remission at week 54 without dose adjustment when their maintenance therapy was given every 8 weeks rather than every 12 weeks. Allowing for dose intensification in the case of relapse, remission rates, but not response rates, at week 54 were superior with every 8-week dosing compared with every 12-week dosing.  相似文献
5.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies on the early steps in the life cycle of hepatitis B virus have been hampered by the lack of readily available target cells. In this study, we mapped a defined virus attachment site to primary hepatocytes that is essential for infection. METHODS: We used purified virus particles from human carrier plasma as an inoculum and primary cultures of tupaia hepatocytes as susceptible target cells and studied the inhibitory effect of amino-terminally acylated preS1-derived lipopeptides on infection interference. RESULTS: Infectivity of virus could be blocked efficiently in this system by amino-terminally acylated peptides containing amino acids 2-18 from the preS1 domain. The addition of amino acids 28-48 enhanced the inhibitory capacity, whereas amino acids 49-78 did not contribute to inhibition. Myristoylated preS1 peptides 2-48 bound strongly to tupaia hepatocytes but not to nonhepatic cells or rodent hepatocytes and thereby inhibited infection even at concentrations of 1 nmol/L completely. Particles consisting only of the small hepatitis B surface protein-the active component of current hepatitis B vaccines-did not bind at all to tupaia hepatocytes, but the addition of the preS1 domain to the particles allowed binding. CONCLUSIONS: The preS1 sequence 2-48 mediates attachment of the virus to its target cells, whereas the small surface protein seems to be involved in other steps. These findings indicate that the current subunit hepatitis B vaccines may be improved by the addition of distinct preS1 epitopes. Moreover, preS1 lipopeptides are promising candidates for specific antiviral therapy against hepatitis B infections.  相似文献
6.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase blocks the mevalonate metabolic pathway, which is necessary for the isoprenylation of a number of small guanosine triphosphatases. We examined the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, fluvastatin and lovastatin, on human pancreatic cancer cell invasion in vitro and experimental liver metastasis in vivo. METHODS: Cell invasion was studied in a modified Boyden chamber assay. The translocation of RhoA was assessed by immunoblotting. Experimental liver metastases were induced in nude mice by intrasplenic inoculation of ASPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. RESULTS: Fluvastatin and lovastatin inhibited the in vitro cancer cell invasion induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a manner sensitive to C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of Rho. Treatment of ASPC-1 cells with fluvastatin markedly attenuated the EGF-induced translocation of RhoA from the cytosol to the membrane fraction and caused cell rounding. The effects of fluvastatin could be reversed by the addition of all-trans-geranylgeraniol. Administration of fluvastatin to nude mice reduced both metastatic tumor formation in the liver and the growth of established liver metastases at doses recommended for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in humans. CONCLUSIONS: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors can be antimetastatic agents with the potential for useful clinical applications.  相似文献
7.
Cario E  Gerken G  Podolsky DK 《Gastroenterology》2007,132(4):1359-1374
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a class of transmembrane pattern recognition receptors essential for microbial recognition and control of innate immune responses. Commensal bacteria play an important role in maintaining tolerance and active stability of the intestinal epithelial barrier by suppressing intestinal inflammation, yet the mechanisms of action are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the functional relevance of TLR2 to control tight junction (TJ)-associated intestinal epithelial barrier integrity to balance mucosal homeostasis against inflammatory stress-induced damage. METHODS: TLR2 ligand (synthetic Pam(3)Cys-SK4 [PCSK])-induced activation of signaling cascades and TJ-associated distribution was assessed by using Western blotting and confocal microscopy combined with functional transfection and inhibitor studies in model intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines (IEC-6, Caco-2) or primary IEC cultured short-term ex vivo. DSS colitis was induced by standard protocol in wild-type, TLR2-/-, and MyD88-/- mice. Spontaneous apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxinucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling. RESULTS: Data from in vitro and ex vivo models of intestinal epithelial cells revealed that TLR2 stimulation effectively preserves TJ-associated barrier assembly against stress-induced damage through promotion of PI3K/Akt-mediated cell survival via MyD88. Furthermore, in vivo studies underscored that TLR2-mediated TJ regulation critically determines susceptibility to intestinal injury and inflammation. Inflammatory stress in mice deficient of TLR2 or MyD88 induced early TJ-associated disruption interrelated with anti-apoptotic failure of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Oral treatment of colitis with the TLR2 ligand PCSK significantly suppressed mucosal inflammation and apoptosis by efficiently restoring TJ-associated integrity of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. CONCLUSION: TLR2 may provide a target to pharmacologically modulate mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation.  相似文献
8.
目的探讨纯化的日本血吸虫重组信号蛋白14-3-3(rSj14-3-3)及其相应单克隆抗体对日本血吸虫病的诊断价值。方法利用纯化的rSj14-3-3抗原和可溶性虫卵抗原(SEA)间接ELISA方法检测急、慢性日本血吸虫病患者血清中特异性抗体;以纯化的抗rSj14-3-3单克隆抗体包板,以兔抗rSj14-3-3多抗和酶标羊抗兔多抗为检测系统的酶标夹心法检测患者血清中的循环抗原。结果用rSj14-3-3检测急、慢性血吸虫病患者血清中特异性抗体的阳性率分别为100%和933%,用抗rSj14-3-3单克隆抗体检测循环抗原的阳性率分别为100%和956%,两者联合检测的总阳性率分别为100%和978%;经治疗后2、4、6、12个月,抗体转阴率分别为387%、548%、75%、90%,血清循环抗原转阴率分别为177%、419%、55%、85%,两者联合检测的总转阴率分别为452%、63%、85%、90%;对正常人血清的检测未见假阳性反应,与华支睾吸虫病和钩虫病患者血清出现轻微的交叉反应;用SEA检测抗体的阳性率分别为978%和956%,与正常人及华支睾吸虫病和钩虫病患者血清均有不同程度的交叉反应,治疗后2、4、6、12个月阴转率分别为32%、65%、125%、15%。结论rSj14-3-3检测急慢性血吸虫病患者血清中的特异性抗体和利用抗rSj14-3-3单克隆抗体检测循环抗原具有高度的特异性和敏感性,抗原和单抗可规模化  相似文献
9.
Galectin-1 suppresses experimental colitis in mice   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Uncontrolled T-cell activation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Therefore, pharmacologic strategies directed to restore the normal responsiveness of the immune system by deleting inappropriately activated T cells could be efficacious in the treatment of these pathologic conditions. Galectin-1 is an endogenous lectin expressed in lymphoid organs that plays a role in the maintenance of central and peripheral tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of galectin-1 on T-helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. METHODS: Cells and tissues from mice with TNBS colitis receiving treatment with several doses of human recombinant galectin-1 (hrGAL-1) were analyzed for morphology, cytokine production, and apoptosis. RESULTS: Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of rhGAL-1 resulted in a striking improvement in the clinical and histopathologic aspects of the disease. hrGAL-1 reduced the number of hapten-activated spleen T cells, decreased inflammatory cytokine production, and profoundly reduced the ability of lamina propria T cells to produce IFN gamma in vitro. Moreover, hrGAL-1 led to the appearance of apoptotic mononuclear cells in colon tissue when administered in vivo and induced selective apoptosis of TNBS-activated lamina propria T cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data show that hrGAL-1 exerts protective and immunomodulatory activity in TNBS-induced colitis and it might be effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.  相似文献
10.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induces multiple effects including cell proliferation and death by ligation with TNF receptor type II (TNFR2). We studied the role of TNFR2 in chronic inflammation-induced colonic epithelial alteration. METHODS: TNFR2 expression in colonic epithelial cells (CECs) was assessed by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and murine colitis models. TNFR2 expression was also analyzed using COLO205 cells. The role of TNFR2 in colonic epithelial homeostasis was examined by generating interleukin 6-deficient TCR alpha KO (alpha IL-6DKO) or TNFR2-deficient TCR alpha (alpha TNFR2DKO) mice. RESULTS: TNFR2 expression was up-regulated in CEC in both human ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. In vitro studies showed that TNFR2 expression was up-regulated by a cooperative effect of key proinflammatory cytokines. By RPA, the increased expression of TNFR2 was detectable in TCR alpha KO mice with colitis compared with TCR alpha KO mice without colitis or wild-type mice. In alpha IL-6DKO mice, TNFR2 expression, proliferation, and nuclear factor kappa B activation of CECs were markedly reduced compared with TCR alpha KO mice. alpha TNFR2 mice also showed significantly less colonic epithelial proliferation compared with TCR alpha KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of TNFR2 is consistently increased on CECs in both murine colitis models as well as patients with IBD. TNFR2 may play an important role in colonic inflammation-associated alteration in the intestinal epithelium.  相似文献
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