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1.
Cui X  Wang L  Zuo P  Han Z  Fang Z  Li W  Liu J 《Biogerontology》2004,5(5):317-325
D-Galactose causes aging acceleration in different animal models but the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of D-galactose on lifespan and oxidative stress biomarkers in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and housefly (Musca domestica). D-Galactose was added to drinking water (20mg/ml) for housefly and to culture medium (6.5%) for fruit fly from 24h after emergence. Oxidative stress was estimated by measuring the activity of Cu–Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxidation products, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipofuscin in housefly brain (male) and in fruit fly (male and female). D-Galactose caused a significant decrease in mean lifespan (by 12.6% of male and 15.9% of female) and maximum lifespan (by 12.9% of male and 17.1% of female) in fruit fly, and also a significant decrease in mean lifespan (by 27.1% of male, 19.8% of female) and maximum lifespan (by 27.1% of male, 21.9% of female) in housefly. MDA and lipofuscin increased with age in fruit fly and in housefly brains while change of the SOD activity showed a biphasic shape with age. D-Galactose caused a significant increase in MDA and lipofuscin and decrease in SOD activity in the age-matched fruit flies and houseflies. These data indicate that D-galactose shortens the lifespan of the two different fly species and that the life shortening effect is associated with an increase in oxidative stress.This revised version was published online in October 2005 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
2.
Telomerase is an enzyme capable of elongating telomeres, the caps at the ends of chromosomes associated with aging, lifespan and survival. We investigated tissue-level variation in telomerase across different ages in four bird species that vary widely in their life history. Telomerase activity in bone marrow may be associated with the rate of erythrocyte telomere shortening; birds with lower rates of telomere shortening and longer lifespans have higher bone marrow telomerase activity throughout life. Telomerase activity in all of the species appears to be tightly correlated with the proliferative potential of specific organs, and it is also highest in the hatchling age-class, when the proliferative demands of most organs are the highest. This study offers an alternative view to the commonly held hypothesis that telomerase activity is down-regulated in all post-mitotic somatic tissues in long-lived organisms as a tumor-protective mechanism. This highlights the need for more comparative analyses of telomerase, lifespan and the incidence of tumor formation.  相似文献
3.
Signaling on telomerase: a master switch in cell aging and immortalization   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Li H  Liu JP 《Biogerontology》2002,3(1-2):107-116
4.
Urate has been shown to be a major antioxidant in human serum and was postulated to have a biological role in protecting tissues against the toxic effects of oxygen radicals and in determining the longevity of primates. This possibility has been tested by determining if the maximum lifespan potentials of 22 primate and 17 non-primate mammalian species are positively correlated with the concentration of urate in serum and brain per specific metabolic rate. This analysis is based on the concept that the degree of protection a tissue has against oxygen radicals is proportional to antioxidant concentration per rate of oxygen metabolism of that tissue. Ascorbate, another potentially important antioxidant in determining longevity of mammalian species, was also investigated using this method. The results show a highly significant positive correlation of maximum lifespan potential with the concentration of urate in serum and brain per specific metabolic rate. No significant correlation was found for ascorbate. These results support the hypothesis that urate is biologically active as an antioxidant and is involved in determining the longevity of primate species, particularly for humans and the great apes. Ascorbate appears to have played little or no role as a longevity determinant in mammalian species.  相似文献
5.
Low oxygen delays fibroblast senescence despite shorter telomeres   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
It has been widely accepted that telomere shortening acts as a cell division counting mechanism that beyond a set critical length signals cells to enter replicative senescence. In this study, we demonstrate that by simply lowering the oxygen content of the cell culture environment 10-fold (20–2%) extends the replicative lifespan of fetal bovine fibroblasts at least five-times (30–150 days). Although, low oxygen fibroblasts display a slightly slower rate (P > 0.05) of telomere attrition than their high oxygen counterparts (171 bp versus 182 bp/PD), late passage fibroblasts (>50 PD) that have extended their replicative capacity under low oxygen conditions exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) shorter telomere lengths (11,135 ± 467 bp) compared to senescent cells (25–34 PD) cultured under high oxygen conditions (14,827 ± 1173 bp). There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal abnormalities with continual cell division under both high and low oxygen environments, however, fibroblasts displayed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in chromosomal abnormalities at low oxygen tensions compared to those under 20% oxygen. These apparent protective effects on telomere shortening, delayed senescence and reduced chromosomal aberrations may be attributed to the up-regulation of telomerase activity observed for fibroblasts cultured under low oxygen. These results are consistent with the idea that a critically short telomere length may not be the sole trigger of replicative senescence, but may be regulated by the integrity of telomere structure itself and/or the amount of oxidative DNA damage in the cell.  相似文献
6.
Pioglitazone: an anti-diabetic compound with anti-aging properties   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Insulin and Insulin-Growth-Factor-like (IGF) signaling pathways are well known longevity pathways in nematodes, insects and mammals. To our knowledge, there are no systematic pharmacological studies evaluating the anti-aging properties of medications that target this pathway in Drosophila. Although there are no published data implicating an anti-aging role for these compounds in Drosophila, we hypothesized that their promising pharmacological profile might decrease mortality. However, the decrease in mortality could be due to a number of potential artifacts and confounds such as fecundity depression, decrease in metabolic rate, or CNS depression. Therefore, the mere finding that a compound decreases mortality does not qualify it as an anti-aging compound. In this study, we evaluated the anti-aging properties of four compounds that might target the insulin signaling pathway in Drosophila. Once it was established that the compound decreased mortality, we proceeded to evaluate possible confounding factors that could have contributed to the mortality reduction. We show that only piolglitazone displayed anti-aging properties. At present, we do not have a mechanistic explanation for this pharmacological disparity.  相似文献
7.
Intense effort has been directed at understanding pathways modulating ageing in invertebrate model organisms. Prior to this decade, several longevity genes had been identified in flies, worms and yeast. More recently, with the development of RNAi libraries in worms and the yeast open reading frame (ORF) deletion collection, it has become routine to perform genome-wide screens for phenotypes of interest. A number of worm screens have now been performed to identify genes whose reduced expression leads to longer lifespan, and two ORF deletion longevity screens have been performed in yeast. Interestingly, these screens have linked previously unidentified cellular pathways to invertebrate ageing. More surprising, however, is the sheer number of longevity genes in worms and yeast. In this review, I discuss data from genome-wide screens in the context of evolutionary theories of ageing and raise issues regarding the increasing complexity associated with the genetics of longevity.  相似文献
8.
Ageing research has been revolutionized by the use of model organisms to discover genetic alterations that can extend lifespan. In the last 5 years alone, it has become apparent that single gene mutations in the insulin and insulin-like growth-factor signalling pathways can lengthen lifespan in worms, flies and mice, implying evolutionary conservation of mechanisms. Importantly, this research has also shown that these mutations can keep the animals healthy and disease-free for longer and can alleviate specific ageing-related pathologies. These findings are striking in view of the negative effects that disruption of these signalling pathways can also produce. Here, we summarize the body of work that has lead to these discoveries and point out areas of interest for future work in characterizing the genetic, molecular and biochemical details of the mechanisms to achieving a longer and healthier life.  相似文献
9.
Food, fertility and longevity   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
Holliday R 《Biogerontology》2006,7(3):139-141
Some animals live in environments in which the food supply fluctuates. When it is scarce these animals do not breed, but invest resources into survival until food is again available, and they can reproduce. Under these circumstances the lifespan can be increased, just as it is after calorie restriction. Other animals have a fairly constant food supply, and it is predicted that these would not have an extended life span if subjected to calorie restriction. Hibernation is a natural form of calorie restriction, and in some cases may lengthen lifespan.  相似文献
10.
Telomeres and telomerase: basic science implications for aging   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Life expectancy in the United States and other developed nations has increased remarkably over the past century, and continues to increase. However, lifespan has remained relatively unchanged over this period. As life expectancy approaches maximum human lifespan, further increase in life expectancy would only be possible if lifespan could also be increased. Although little is known about the aging process, increasing lifespan and delaying aging are the research challenges of the new century, and have caused intense debate and research activities among biogerontologists. Many theories have been proposed to explain the aging process. However, damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the centerpiece of most of these. Recently telomere shortening has been described to be associated with DNA damage. Located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and synthesized by telomerase, telomeres maintain the length of chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can lead to DNA damage. The association between cellular senescence and telomere shortening in vitro is well established. In the laboratory, telomerase-negative differentiated somatic cells maintain a youthful state, instead of aging, when transfected with vectors encoding telomerase. Many human cancer cells demonstrate high telomerase activity. Evidence is also accumulating that telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence in vivo. What causes changes in expression of telomerase in different cell types and premature aging syndromes? Does the key to "youthfulness" lie in our ability to control the expression of telomerase? We have reviewed the contemporary literature to find answers to these questions and explore the association between aging, telomeres, and telomerase.  相似文献
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