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1.
AIM To establish clone cells with different metastaticpotential for the study of metastesis-related mechanisms.METHODS Cloning procedure was performed on parentalhepetocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line MHCC97,andbiological characteristics of the target clones selected byin vivo screening were studied.RESULTS Two clones with high (MHCC97-H) and low(MHCC97-L) metastatic potential were isolated from theparent cell line.Compared with MHCC97-L,MHCC97-H hadsmaller cell size (average cell diameter 43μm vs 50 μm)and faster in vitro and in vivo growth rate (tumor celldoubling time was 34.2 h vs 60.0 h).The main ranges ofchromosomes were 55-58 in MHCC97-H and 57-62 inMHCC97-L.Boyden chamber in vitro invasion assaydemonstrated that the number of penetrating cells throughthe artificial basement membrane was (37.5±11.0) cells/field for MHCC97-H vs (17.7±6.3)/field for MHCC97-L.The proportions of cells In G0-G1 phase,S phase,andG2-M phase for MHCC97-H/MHCC97-L were 0.56/0.65,0.28/0.25 and 0.16/0.10,respectively,as measured byflow cytometry.The serum AFP levels in nude mice 5 wkafter orthotoplc implantation of tumor tissue were (246±66)μg.L~(-1) for MHCC97-H and (91±66)μg.L~(-1) for MHCC97-L.The pulmonary metastatic rate was 100% (10/10) vs40% (4/10).CONCLUSION Two clones of the same geneticbackground but with different biological behaviors wereestablished,which could be valuable models forInvestigation on HCC metastasis.  相似文献
2.
A decade’s studies on metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma   总被引:72,自引:0,他引:72  
Metastasis remains one of the major challenges before hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is finally conquered. This paper summarized a decades studies on HCC metastasis at the Liver Cancer Institute of Fudan University. We have established a stepwise metastatic human HCC model system, which included a metastatic HCC model in nude mice (LCI-D20), a HCC cell line with high metastatic potential (MHCC97), a relatively low metastatic potential cell clone (MHCC97L) and several stepwise high metastatic potential cell clones (MHCC97H, HCCLM3, and HCCLM6) from their parent MHCC97 cell. Endeavors have been made for searching human HCC metastasis-related chromosomes/proteins/genes. Monogene-based studies revealed that HCC invasion/metastasis was similar to that of other solid tumors, and the biological characteristics of small HCC were only slightly better than that of large HCC. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), genotyping, cDNA microarray, and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we obtained some interesting results. In particular, in collaboration with the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the United States, we generated a molecular signature that can classify metastatic HCC patients, identified osteopontin as a lead gene in the signature, and found that genes favoring metastasis progression were initiated in the primary tumors. We also found that chromosome 8p deletion, particularly in the region of 8p23, was associated with HCC metastasis. Cytokeratin 19 was identified as one of the proteins, which was found in MHCC97H, but not in MHCC97L cells. Experimental interventions using the high metastatic nude mice model have provided clues for the prevention of HCC metastasis. Translation from workbench to bedside demonstrated that serum VEGF, microvessel density, and p53 scoring may be of value for the prediction of postoperative metastatic recurrence. Interferon alpha proved effective for the prevention of recurrence both experimentally and clinically. In conclusion, HCC metastasis that probably initiated in the primary tumor is a multigene-involved, multistep, and changing process. The further elucidation of the mechanism underlying HCC metastasis will provide a more solid basis for the prediction and prevention of the metastatic recurrence of HCC.  相似文献
3.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the community remains unknown. We sought to determine survival and liver-related morbidity among community-based NAFLD patients. METHODS: Four hundred twenty patients diagnosed with NAFLD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between 1980 and 2000 were identified using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Medical records were reviewed to confirm diagnosis and determine outcomes up to 2003. Overall survival was compared with the general Minnesota population of the same age and sex. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 49 (15) years; 231 (49%) were male. Mean follow-up was 7.6 (4.0) years (range, 0.1-23.5) culminating in 3192 person-years follow-up. Overall, 53 of 420 (12.6%) patients died. Survival was lower than the expected survival for the general population (standardized mortality ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.003-1.76; P = .03). Higher mortality was associated with age (hazard ratio per decade, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.7), impaired fasting glucose (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.2), and cirrhosis (hazard ratio, 3.1, 95% CI, 1.2-7.8). Liver disease was the third leading cause of death (as compared with the thirteenth leading cause of death in the general Minnesota population), occurring in 7 (1.7%) subjects. Twenty-one (5%) patients were diagnosed with cirrhosis, and 13 (3.1%) developed liver-related complications, including 1 requiring transplantation and 2 developing hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among community-diagnosed NAFLD patients is higher than the general population and is associated with older age, impaired fasting glucose, and cirrhosis. Liver-related death is a leading cause of mortality, although the absolute risk is low.  相似文献
4.
Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to play an important role in angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is great variation in reports on the distribution of VEGF expression, especially in non-carcinoma liver cells. Furthermore, some reports have mentioned that endothelial cells were positive for VEGF antibody but have not evaluated its significance. In this study, we focused our attention to these problems and try to solve them. We also analyzed the factors influencing VEGF expression and evaluated the prognostic potential of VEGF protein in HCC. Methods: We examined the VEGF expression in specimens surgically removed from 46 HCC patients and 3 patients with liver cancer metastatic from the colon, and in 4 specimens of liver tissue with benign disease, by immunohistochemical methods. Results/conclusions: VEGF was expressed in HCC cells and hepatocytes and on vascular endothelial cells. Our finding that about seven times more endothelial cells were positive for VEGF antibody in carcinoma areas than in non-carcinoma areas (P < 0.001) suggests that VEGF is a very important angiogenesis factor for HCC growth. VEGF expression in HCC cells and non-carcinoma liver cells and on endothelial cells did not closely correlate with the disease recurrence rate (P > 0.05), suggesting that VEGF expression may not be useful as an individual factor for estimating the prognosis of HCC. A statistical analysis of the relationships between VEGF expression and clinicopathological variables revealed the following: preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization enhanced VEGF expression in both HCC cells and non-carcinoma liver cells. The histological grade of HCC and the level of alanine aminotransferase was related to VEGF expression in non-carcinoma liver cells and on endothelial cells in HCC areas. Tumor size and the histological status of the accompanying chronic hepatitis also influenced the VEGF expression on endothelial cells. Our findings concerning not only HCC but also the surrounding liver and endothelial cells may provide useful information for further research on the role of VEGF expression in HCC patients. Received: 29 July 1999 / Accepted: 11 October 1999  相似文献
5.
BACKGROUND: Tumour immunity does not seem to be induced effectively in tumour-bearing hosts, including in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One possible reason is that function of dendritic cells (DC) is decreased in such hosts. METHODS: We evaluated T cell stimulatory activity and interleukin (IL)-12 production of DC and interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production of T cells of peripheral blood from 12 control individuals and 21 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (six with chronic hepatitis (CH), eight with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 13 with HCC). Five hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with HCC were included as a disease control group. The DC were prepared by the culture of T cell-depleted populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and IL-4 for a total of 11-12 days. The cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. To test the stimulatory function of DC in T cell proliferation, mytomycin C-treated DC were cultured with allogeneic T cells from a control. RESULTS: When the T cell-stimulatory activity of DC was expressed as stimulation index value of [3H]-thymidine incorporation of T cells, the values were lower in HCV-infected HCC (2.6 +/- 1.8, P < 0.01) than in controls (5.5 +/- 2.0) and CH (5.0 +/- 1.3). Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1-induced IL-12 production of DC was decreased in HCV-infected HCC (P < 0.001, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) compared with controls, CH and LC, while similar amounts of IL-10 were produced in patients and controls. Interleukin-10 and IFN-gamma production of T cells in response to anti-CD3 antibody or IL-12 were equivalent between patient groups and controls, respectively. Similarly decreased DC function and normal T cell response were observed in HBV-infected HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the depressed function of DC is associated with pathogenesis of HCC with HBV or HCV infection.  相似文献
6.
AIM: To explore the expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, survivin and the cell apoptosis during the development of tree shrew hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the relationship between expression of these genes, its impact on HCC development, and its relation to cell apoptosis. METHODS: Tree shrew HCC was induced with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and regular biopsy of liver tissues was carried out and the biopsy tissues were collected during cancer inducement. Liver biopsy tissue and HCC tissue were collected from 35 pre-cancerous experimental animals at wk 30 and 60 and at the 30th-, 60th-, and 90th-wk. Liver biopsy tissues were collected from 13 blank control animals at wk 30, 60, and 90. Expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, and survivin at each stage was examined by immunohistochemistry method. Apoptotic cells were detected in situ by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique. RESULTS: The apoptosis rate of normal hepatic cells was extremely low, whereas it increased during the formation of HCC. Expression of the apoptosis-related genes p53, bd-2, bax, and survivin during the formation of HCC presented an increasing tendency. Expression of p53 did not noticeably relate to that of bcl-2, bax, and survivin, whereas expression of bcl-2 and bax was closely related. In HCC, p53 did not present a distinct relation to cell apoptosis, whereas its high level expression was probably related to liver cell proliferation. Survivin negatively correlated apoptosis index, and its overexpression could inhibit cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Apoptosis-related genes p53, bcl-2, bax, and survivin are all related to the occurrence of HCC. The anti-apoptosis effect of bcl-2 is influenced by bax, and ratio bcl/bax reflects more correctly the extent of cell apoptosis.  相似文献
7.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To elucidate the survival of the patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent transcatheter arterial lipiodol chemoembolization (TACE) and to analyze the factors affecting the survivals. METHODS: During the last 8 years, a nationwide prospective cohort study was performed in 8510 patients with unresectable HCC who underwent TACE using emulsion of lipiodol and anticancer agents followed by gelatin sponge particles as an initial treatment. Exclusion criteria were extrahepatic metastases and/or any previous treatment prior to the present TACE. The primary end point was survival. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The multivariate analyses for the factors affecting survival were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazard model. The mean follow-up period was 1.77 years. RESULTS: For overall survival rates by TACE, median and 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year survivals were 34 months, 82%, 47%, 26%, and 16%, respectively. Both the degree of liver damage and the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system proposed by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan demonstrated good stratification of survivals (P = .0001). The multivariate analyses showed significant difference in degree of liver damage (P = .0001), alpha-fetoprotein value (P = .0001), maximum tumor size (P = .0001), number of lesions (P = .0001), and portal vein invasion (P = .0001). The last 3 factors could be replaced by TNM stage. The TACE-related mortality rate after the initial therapy was .5%. CONCLUSIONS: TACE showed safe therapeutic modality with a 5-year survival of 26% for unresectable HCC patients. The degrees of liver damage, TNM stage, and alpha-fetoprotein values were independent risk factors for patient survival.  相似文献
8.
9.
Purpose: Both platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are known to promote the development of new blood vessels, which are fundamental to tumor growth and metastasis. We aimed at evaluating the gene expression of PD-ECGF and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). Patients and methods: Surgical specimens (28 HCC, 28 nontumorous liver tissues and 18 PVTT) were studied by Northern blot analysis. The levels of PD-ECGF mRNA and VEGF mRNA expression were measured by densitometric scanning of the autoradiographs, and they were normalized to the level of expression of an internal control (glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase) mRNA. Results: The expression rates of PD-ECGF mRNA in PVTT, HCC and nontumorous liver tissues were 77.8% (14/18), 67.9% (19/28) and 35.7% (10/28), being 88.9% (16/18), 75.0% (21/28) and 17.9% (5/28) respectively for VEGF mRNA. The expressions of PD-ECGF mRNA and VEGF mRNA were higher in HCC with PVTT than when PVTT was absent (P < 0.05). The PVTT was more often seen in patients with positive expression of both PD-ECGF mRNA and VEGF mRNA in HCC than in patients who were positive for only one of these factors or negative for both (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both PD-ECGF and VEGF correlated well with the formation of PVTT of HCC. Received: 20 June 1999 / Accepted: 20 July 1999  相似文献
10.
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