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浙江省成年居民体力活动模式与影响因素研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的探讨浙江省成年居民体力活动模式与主要影响因素。方法利用2002年浙江省居民营养与健康状况调查数据,以代谢当量为基础对多阶段整群随机抽取3226名成年居民的体力活动现状进行测算分析与影响因素的单因素方差分析。结果低与中高强度体力活动分别占成年居民周体力活动总量52.13%、47.87%,成年居民体力活动来源依次为职业、家务、休闲活动和交通出行,分别占56.41%、20.07%、13.57%和9.95%;居民周体力活动总量与周中高强度体力活动量在城乡、年龄、性别、文化程度、职业、婚姻、家庭收入间差异均有统计学意义(P〈0.05)。结论浙江省成年居民体力活动总体已呈现低强度主体模式,职业劳动仍是中高强度体力活动的主要来源;城市、年龄35岁以下、女性、无配偶、高学历、高收入居民应作为重点干预人群。  相似文献
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活动对心脏病人有益,但应避免活动量过大诱发心肌缺血或加重心衰。代谢当量(METS)指标代表各种活动时的相对能量代谢水平,与活动强度相一致,是表达活动量的客观参数。在30例中重度心衰和20例急性心肌梗塞病人中,我们根据METS安排指导病人各项活动内容,取得较好效果。  相似文献
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目的:定性并定量地分析高血压、高胆固醇和吸烟对心肌梗死后(PMI)患者运动时心脏负荷能力的影响。方法:46例未服用β-阻断剂的PMI患者根据其冠心病危险指数(Dundeerank,DR)(由血压、血胆固醇数值和吸烟状况得出)被分成三组:DR<60(1组,14例)、6070(3组,17例),然后在跑台上进行递增负荷实验(改良Bruce方案)。运动中每3min记录一次主观用力感觉和血压,每30s测量一次摄氧量(VO2)和心率,由VO2计算得出代谢当量(METs),并连续监测12导心电图。结果:运动时间、METs与DR之间存在高度正相关(P<0.01)。最大运动能力为7.5METs(运动"低危层")时DR的对应数值为70。在心脏康复早期只有部分患者(39.1%)可达到低危层的METs值。结论:DR与METs之间的高度相关意味着患者运动中的危险层次可以通过血压、血液胆固醇和吸烟状况被预测出来,这将有助于康复专业人员利用METs值为患者设定适宜的运动水平。  相似文献
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目的:探讨短期的高强度间歇运动训练对平素缺乏运动的青年男性运动耐量的影响。方法:符合入选条件的19名青年男性志愿者被随机分为高强度间歇运动训练组(HIT组)、中等强度持续运动训练组(MCT组)和无运动训练的对照组(CON)。HIT组参加持续2周,每周3次,共6次的高强度间歇运动平板训练。MCT组参加2周,每周3次,共6次的中等强度持续运动平板训练。训练前后3天各进行一次极量运动试验,比较前后运动耐量的变化。结果:HIT组训练后完成运动试验的运动总时间增加,运动耐量由运动前的(14.1±1.7)METs增加至运动训练后的(15.0±1.3)METs(P<0.05);训练后与CON组比较差异具显著性(P<0.05)。CMT组训练后完成运动试验的运动总时间增加(P<0.05),但运动耐量增加无显著性。结论:短期的高强度间歇运动训练能有效提高平素缺乏运动的青年男性运动耐量,其效果优于中等强度持续运动训练。  相似文献
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目的:对递增负荷的Bruce跑台测试方案给出的代谢当量(METs)与运动中根据摄氧量(VO2)计算的METs进行比较,旨在为心肌梗死后(PMI)患者提供不同康复时期METs的预测。方法:101名男性PMI患者参加了12周有氧多样化运动康复程序,程序前、后对其气体代谢、心肺机能、运动能力等指标进行测试。结果:康复程序前后受试者安静时的VO2分别为3.9ml/kg·min和3.8ml/kg·min。运动中的METs与跑台测试方案给出的METs及以安静状态VO2为3.5ml/kg·min(正常成人)时计算得出的METs均有差异。本研究为PMI患者提供的预测METs方法分别为:康复程序前,METs=3.2+1.07跑台等级,或METs=-7.4+0.12HR(心搏次数/min);康复程序后,METs=1.9+1.04跑台等级,或METs=-6.4+0.11HR(心搏次数/min)。结论:本研究建立的HR与METs的相关关系,有助于指导患者确定运动的适宜强度。  相似文献
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目的:观察具备独立步行能力的脑卒中患者常规运动疗法所需的代谢当量。方法:18例脑卒中患者参加了实验。用K4b2便携式运动心肺功能仪记录受试者在静息坐位、坐站转换、靠墙挺髋、患腿负重、患腿上下、上下楼梯、60m行走和连续完成上述动作过程中的耗氧量,计算上述各项运动所需代谢当量。结果:静息坐位代谢当量值为1.024±0.162METs,各项活动代谢当量值分别为:坐站转换2.854±0.907METs、靠墙挺髋2.079±0.397METs、患腿负重2.159±0.418METs、患腿上下2.247±0.515METs、上下楼梯2.865±0.558METs、60m行走2.590±0.603METs、连续动作为2.999±0.590METs。结论:各项训练代谢当量值的确定为合并心血管疾病的脑卒中患者的安全运动强度提供了依据。  相似文献
8.

Objective

To systematically review and synthesize the evidence on physical activity and sedentary behavior after serious orthopedic injury.

Data Sources

Eight electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched from inception to March 2016.

Study Selection

Studies on physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively or via self-report among patients with a serious orthopedic injury (acute bone or soft tissue injury requiring emergency hospital admission and/or nonelective surgery) were included.

Data Extraction

Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were independently performed by 2 reviewers using standardized checklists.

Data Synthesis

Twelve of 2572 studies were included: 8 were on hip fractures and 4 on other orthopedic injuries. Follow-up ranged from 4 days to 2 years postinjury. When measured objectively, physical activity levels were low at all time points postinjury, with individuals with hip fracture achieving only 1% of recommended physical activity levels 7 months postinjury. Studies using objective measures also showed patients to be highly sedentary throughout all stages of recovery, spending 76% to 99% of the day sitting or reclining. For studies using self-report measures, no consistent trends were observed in postinjury physical activity or sedentary behavior.

Conclusions

For studies using objective measures, low physical activity levels and high levels of sedentary behaviors were found consistently after injury. More research is needed not only on the impact of immobility on long-term orthopedic injury outcomes and the risk of chronic disease, but also the potential for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in this population.  相似文献
9.

Objective

To determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and annual health care costs in Veterans.

Patients and Methods

The sample included 9942 subjects (mean age, 59±11 years) undergoing a maximal exercise test for clinical reasons between January 2005 and December 2012. Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as a percentage of age-predicted peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved, was categorized in quartiles. Total and annualized health care costs, derived from the Veterans Administration Allocated Resource Center, were compared using multiple regression, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics.

Results

A gradient for reduced health care costs was observed as CRF increased, with subjects in the least-fit quartile having approximately $14,662 (P<.001) higher overall costs per patient per year compared with those in the fittest quartile, after controlling for potential confounding variables. Each 1-MET higher increment in fitness was associated with a $1592 annual reduction in health care costs (5.6% lower cost per MET), and each higher quartile of fitness was associated with a $4163 annual cost reduction per patient. The effect of CRF was more pronounced among subjects without cardiovascular disease (CVD), suggesting that the results were not driven by the possibility that less-fit individuals had greater CVD. Cost savings attributable to higher fitness were greatest in overweight and obese subjects, with lower savings observed among those individuals with a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2. In a model including historical, clinical, and exercise test responses, heart failure was the strongest predictor of health care costs, followed by CRF (P<.01).

Conclusion

Low CRF is associated with higher health care costs. Efforts to improve CRF may not only improve health but also result in lower health care costs.  相似文献
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