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1.
目的 观察封管用两种枸橼酸钠注射液配方在体外对新西兰大白兔有无溶血、凝集作用. 方法 依照《化学药物刺激性、过敏性和溶血性研究技术指导原则》,取规定量受试药加入2%兔血生理盐水混悬液中,观察溶血和凝集情况,并用分光光度计测定吸光度值,计算溶血率. 结果 Ⅰ型封管用枸橼酸钠注射液(含枸橼酸0.3%)与Ⅱ型封管用枸橼酸钠注射液(含枸橼酸4%)在药物浓度10%时的溶血率分别为3.3%与13.4%,在药物浓度2%时的溶血率分别为1.1%与8.3%. 结论 含枸橼酸0.3%的封管用枸橼酸钠注射液对兔红细胞无明显溶血和凝集现象,溶血率小于5%,符合注射剂要求;而含枸橼酸4%的封管用枸橼酸钠注射液的溶血率大于5%,静脉注射会有溶血倾向.  相似文献
2.
Published and unpublished data from nine studies on juvenile sexual offender treatment effectiveness were summarized by meta-analysis (N=2986, 2604 known male). Recidivism rates for sexual, non-sexual violent, non-sexual non-violent crimes, and unspecified non-sexual were as follows: 12.53%, 24.73%, 28.51%, and 20.40%, respectively, based on an average 59-month follow-up period. Four included studies contained a control group (n=2288) and five studies included a comparison treatment group (n=698). An average weighted effect size of 0.43 (CI=0.33-0.55) was obtained, indicating a statistically significant effect of treatment on sexual recidivism. However, individual study characteristics (e.g., handling of dropouts and non-equivalent follow-up periods between treatment groups) suggest that results should be interpreted with caution. A comparison of odds ratios by quality of study design indicated that higher quality designs yielded better effect sizes, though the difference between groups was not significant.  相似文献
3.
Objective: To undertake a cost analysis of therapeutic strategies with plasma exchange (PE) for the treatment of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Design: A randomized clinical trial including 556 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We demonstrated that in the group with mild disease (walking possible) two PEs were more effective than none in shortening the time to beginning motor recovery. In the groups with moderate disease (walking impossible) and or severe disease (mechanically ventilated patients) four sessions were more effective than two and no more effective than six in shortening the time to recovery of walking with assistance and for the recovery rate of full muscle strength within 1 year. Data on outcomes and costs was collected. Complete cost data were available on 546 from the 556 patients of the trial. Costs were estimated from the viewpoint of the healthcare system and computed over a 1-year period. Because the analysis of medical outcomes did not show any difference regarding mortality but only on intermediate short-term and long-term outcomes, we carried out a cost minimization analysis. Results: In two groups a dominant strategy appeared, with greater efficacy and lower costs in the two-PE arm for the mild group: 21,353 euros vs. 38,753 euros and in the four-PE arm in the moderate group: 59,480 euros vs. 80,737 euros. In the severe group four PEs were as efficient and somewhat less expensive than six: 57,621 vs. 61,056 euros. Conclusion: The treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome by PE at the onset of disease appears to have medical justification. The least expensive strategies are either more or equally efficient as more expensive strategies. Received: 3 November 1999 Final revision received: 5 May 2000 Accepted: 9 May 2000  相似文献
4.
We compared outcomes of 45 depressed patientstreated in private practice with cognitive therapy orwith cognitive therapy plus pharmacotherapy to outcomesof patients receiving those treatments in two randomized controlled trials. Private practiceand research samples differed considerably, with privatepractice patients having more psychiatric and medicalcomorbidities and a greater range of initial depression severity. Treatment in privatepractice and research settings also differed, withprivate practice treatment conducted in a more flexiblemanner using an idiographic, formulation-drivenapproach. As predicted, private practice patients showedstatistically significant reductions in depressivesymptomatology over the course of treatment, and at posttreatment, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of patients treated in private practice andresearch settings were not statistically significantlydifferent. Clinical significance of outcomes was alsocomparable in the clinical and research samples. Of the variables measuring demographic,illness, and treatment factors, only pretreatment BDIscore predicted post treatment BDI score in the privatepractice sample.  相似文献
5.
目的 提高健康教育的实效性,使糖尿病前期的社区病人避免危险因素,预防糖尿病的发生.方法 在医院所属社区医院,对糖尿病前期及高危人群进行健康教育及生活方式的干预.结果 干预后体重指数、空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖与干预前比较明显下降(P<0.01);收缩压、舒张压、甘油三脂也有所降低(P<0.05).干预后糖尿病知识知晓率有明显增加.结论 健康教育及对糖尿病前期生活方式的干预切实可行,延缓了糖尿病的发生.实施健康教育和生活方式的干预对IGT病人发展成糖尿病有决定性的作用.  相似文献
6.
目的:研究专业化和“两栖型”院前急救模式对急救救治效果的影响。方法:选取本院2003年1月至10月由急诊科兼院前(两栖型)急救出车的1301例“两栖型”院前急救病例作为对照组,2004年1月至10月由专职院前科出诊的1574例专业化院前急救病例作为研究组。比较和分析两组间救治效果间的差异。结果:研究组和对照组间的平均急救半径,病情分级无显著差异(P<0.01);院前死亡率、并发症发生率研究组较对照组低(P<0.05);现场处置率、救治有效率研究组明显高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:院前急救模式对患者的救治效果有明显的影响,专业化院前急救救治效果明显优于“两栖型”,专业化院前急救模式也是院前急救发展的方向。  相似文献
7.
One hundred and eleven pre-pubertal children (70 boys, 41 girls, aged 2.5 to 14.3 years) with growth failure (height 2 SD below the mean for chronological age (CA) and height velocity (HV) below the 10th percentile for bone age) due to idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (peak plasma GH < 20 mUI/1 to two standard provocative tests) were treated with GHRH 1-44 NH2. Patient stratification in two classes was performed according to body weight; in each class, patients were randomly allocated to one of seven GHRH doses, from 30 to 300 micrograms/day. GHRH was injected subcutaneously, every evening, for six months in a double-blind fashion. No relationship was found between the absolute or incremental HV during treatment and the dose (range from 1.3-23.1 micrograms/kg/day) of GHRH. However, HV (cm/year) increased from 3.8 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SEM) before treatment to 6 +/- 0.2 during six months treatment and 47 patients (42%) increased their HV up to at least the mean normal HV for bone age (catch-up growth). Low titer antibodies to GHRH were found in 19 patients (17.1%) at six months; no adverse effect was observed. Our results suggest that patients showing catch-up growth were older, had a height closer to the mean for chronological age and a slower pre-treatment height velocity. Failure to demonstrate a relationship between GHRH dose and changes in growth velocity might be explained by the combination of a placebo effect, insufficient frequency of GHRH administration and heterogeneity of the population.  相似文献
8.
目的探讨在大型综合医院实行床位集中管理的效果。方法以四川大学华西医院为研究对象,首先设置建造医院床位集中管理中心,甄选具有良好素质的人员来中心工作;然后制定全院患者统一收治原则并纳入系统管控;采取制作入院通视教育短片在中心滚动播放,让患者在入院前了解我院基本情况;制定规范的收治流程,方便患者入院。结果该中心运行1年余,简化了住院患者办理入院的手续,规范了流程,节省了护士人力24人,患者满意度也由89.30%提高至93.25%,同时,还在一定程度上提高了医院病床使用率,缩短了平均住院日,使病室秩序大为改善。结论大型综合医院成立床位统一管理中心,既能节省护士人力,又能方便患者人院,顺应了医院的发展需要,值得推广。  相似文献
9.
由于儿童留置的PICC导管型号较成人细小,加之患儿活泼好动,因此,导管破损是儿童PICC留置过程中较常见的并发症之一。大部分的体外导管破损很容易被发现,而体内导管破损通常不易被发现,这也是造成导管断裂的潜在因素。如不及时处理,破损的导管还可断裂于体内,对患儿的生命造成很大威胁。我科2009年10月20日经X光的影像学改变及时发现一名血液病患儿PICC导管在体内破损,并给予了拔除,避免了导管在体内的断裂。现将护理过程及体会介绍如下。  相似文献
10.
摘要 目的:探讨穴位按摩法配合康复训练对脑卒中单侧忽略患者康复的疗效。 方法:对2015年10月—2016年9月在2所医院住院的脑卒中后偏瘫患者进行神经心理学评测,确定158例右大脑半球卒中后单侧空间忽略患者,随机分为两组:试验组79例和对照组79例;对照组给予传统的康复训练和康复指导,试验组除常规传统的康复训练和康复指导外由护士给予穴位按摩,并分别在治疗前及康复后8周对患者进行脑卒中单侧忽略评定及给予日常生活自理能力评定、Fugl-Meyer运动功能评定和简易精神状态检查,并比较。 结果:康复8周后试验组单侧忽略的改善程度优于对照组(P<0.05);两组患者治疗后经Barthel指数、FMA和MMSE评定,试验组恢复程度优于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05)。 结论:采用穴位按摩法配合康复训练可以有效地改善脑卒中患者单侧忽略程度,通过单侧忽略的改善可以更好地提高患者康复训练水平。  相似文献
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